Tembo is a Bantu language spoken by some 50, 000 peole in part of Kivu Region of the Republic of Zaïre. It is one of the languages in Zaïre which have not yet been described on the part of the linguist. This paper, the data of which is based on field work carried out by the auther in 1976-1977, treats tonal phenomena of nouns which, as far as the auther knows, characterize Tembo as a crucially distinct type of tone language among the Bantu languages hitherto studied, In most languages of this family, it is usual to find that tone of noun class prefixes is constant, either high as in Luba and a few others for example, or low as in most others including Proto-Bantu. In any case the prefixes in these languages have lexical tone of their own. In Tembo, however, there are two kinds of noun prefixes with regard to the lexical representation of their tone: prefixes which have high tone lexically (tuba type), and prefixes which are deprived of tone in their underlying representation. In the latter type the tone of the prefixes shows up as high or low according to individual noun stems, because it is the stem which prescribes the tone of the prefix—the tone of the prefix being part of the stem. So all the nouns derived from a particular noun stem have the same tonal pattern regardless of the noun class in which they are classified. The noun class prefixes in Tembo are, for the most part, of the latter type with the former type being restricted to only a few prefixes. The notion of stem-tone is, then, presented in order to describe the process in which the toneless prefixes are inserted into noun stems to form nouns. Finally in relation to this problem of the lexical representation of tone, tonal changes of nouns in a syntactic construction (N+Adj) and their formulation are dealt with.
The Karroo Beds (Duruma Sandstones) distributed in the coastal region of Kenya consist essentially of arkosic sandstones and grits. They show, as a whole, a monoclinal structure inclined gently to the east-southeast. The upper half of the Duruma Sandstones exposed along the Mombasa Road was examined for the purpose of paleocurrent analysis. The most ubiquitously occurring current indicators are cross laminae both of small scale and of large scale. Current directions shown by small scale cross laminae in a single bed have a rather high consistency ratio. Parting lineations are also common in flaggy micaceous sandstones. Oscillation ripples with little directional significance are abundant, whereas current ripples are rare in spite of common development of cross laminae which are the product of migration of current ripples. Current marks such as groove casts are rarely recognized on the lower surface of graded sandstone beds alternating with mudstone beds. Probably these flysch-like beds were laid down from small and local “turbidity currents” originated from the sudden release of dammed-up sediments which had been accumulated behind some barriers in the realm of bed load transportation.
The volcanic earthquakes and tremors occurring in the volcanic regions of Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira in the Republic of Zaire are investigated by use of the data from Lwiro (LWI) and the temporary observations carried in 1972 and 1977. The main results obtained in this paper are as follows: 1) The volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira are the most active volcano-seismic regions in the Virunga Volcano. The volcanic earthquakes of type B are located only in the Nyamuragira region and their epicenters are distributed along the fissure of which the direction is NNW-SSE. On the other hand, the earthquakes called type A are located in the narrow area of the northern part of Nyiragongo. 2) Judging from the number of the volcanic earthquakes recorded at LWI, the volcano-seismic activity changed at the beginning of 1975. 3) In the case of the Rugarama eruption, 1971, the occurrence of volcanic earthquakes had a close relationship to the magma flow to the surface. The precursory energy decrease of volcanic earthquakes is found to occurr at three months before the eruption. 4) In the regions of Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira, three magma reservoirs are found based on the spatial distribution of predominant frequency of volcanic tremor. The magma reservoir found under the crater Nyamuragira is considered to be persistent. The linear dimension of the reservoir is estimated to be around 2km.