This paper describes and analyzes the introduction of the women's voluntary self-help association movement (Maendeleo ya Wanawake Movement) and its development among the Kipsigis people in the Kencho District, Kenya, on the basis of the author's field research. Variety of cooperative works, having been popular among the Kipsigis, are generally called kipagenge in their language. In Kenya, the Maendeleo ya Wanawake Movement was formed in 1952 so that the womenfolk might economically maintain themselves and raise their status in the communities. The Movement seems to have been received at first as a variation of kipagenge by the Kipsigis. In other words, the Kipsigis tried to positively respond to the Movement, modeling and developing it in the traditional paradigm of kipagenge. In course of time, the Kipsigis word kipagenge has become to denote usually the women's self-support association movement itself. There are roughly two types of kipagenge (kipagengesiek, pl.). One is a strong company-like association formed across traditional basic social organizations like kokwet, which is still the real base of the Kipsigis's everyday life. Since the membership is based on individual participation, this type of kipagenge often lacks nuclear family groups, and is independent of the traditional authorities. This type of group tends to appreciate new types of political leaders. The other type retains the major traits of the traditional kipagenge to attain and maintain the network of daily cooperative works and friendship among the members rather than the proper goal, i. e. women's self-help, that the Movement head office advocates. The members usually have strong familial ties with one another, and one or two nuclear family groups lead the association under the guidance of a family head, who is often of the traditional local authorities. Consequently, kipagenge is rapidly becoming a new core of political alliance, in both an old fashion and an innovative manner, while providing the womenfolk with possibility of access to politics, on both local and national level, which formerly even the menfolk little dreamed of.
The Islamic Republic of Mauritania is one of the least less developed countries. G. N. P. per head was only 270 U. S. dollars in 1978. This country has, however, two rich natural resources; the high-grade iron ore and one of the richest marine fishing grounds. Since 1959, many foreign fishing fleets from Japan, Spain, Italy, Korea, Soviet Union etc., have been operating to catch fish in this marine fishing ground. The catch consists mostly of mackerels, sardines, shads, breams octopuses, and crawfishes. In 1976, total catch reached to 1570 thousand tons in the Sahara coastal division. Since 1972, the government of Mauritania has limited the number of foreign trawlers and levied the tax on trawlers by means of expansion of the territorial waters, to protect the national fishery resource and to grant the profit to Mauritanian fishermen. Mauritanian fishery is classified as follows: (A) Modernized fishery (trawlers fishing managed by Maurutanian companies) (B) Local fisheries. (a) Freshwater fishing in the river of Senegal. (b) Seasonal migrant fishing by the Imuraquen. (c) Local coastal fishing by the Wolof in Mauritania. The Japanese government is making the financial and technical aids to (b) and (c). The local coastal fishermen are organizing cooperatives.