This paper investigates the way Fula, or Fulfulde, borrows vocabulary from Hausa, its most influential neighboring language in the eastern part of the areas where Fula is spoken. First, phonological features are described. Some consonants that do not exist in Fula are replaced by their closest correspondences, such as z>j, ts>s, 'k>k etc. Second, morphological aspects of the borrowing are considered, especially referring to the Fula consonant alternation system. It is observed that the choice of which nominal class a Hausa loan should belong to is determined morphologically as well as semantically. Another point is that only one kind of consonant-grade, namely the continuant grade, is allowed for suffixes of loan-words.
The idiom nana asumasi awu (‘king is dead’) was never used of an Asantehene. On such phrase as ‘king is absent’ or ‘king is departed’, and seemingly the commonest—dupon keseε atutu—described the death of an Asantehene in terms of the uprooting or fall gyadua (pl. gyannua), a mighty shade tree. The accession of the new king may occur immediately within forty days upon the death, or dethronement of the former monarch, since the funeral and enthronement of the king become part of the same sequence of events. On the death or dethronement of an Asantehene, the queenmother (Asantehemma) takes over as regent. Afterwards, the kingmakers (werempe) formerly asked an Asantehemma to nominate a candiate for their approval, and gave her three succeeding options at the end of which the councillors could in turn present a candiate for her approval. The Asantehemma plays an important role in the succession of the throne, and decide the new king according to the Asante rules of succession. In ontological terms, it is descent which is important to the structure of Oyoko dynasty; in phenomenological terms, it is marriage. But, in structural terms, from the viewpoints of the genealogical matrix and the pattern of marriage, the distribution of Asantehenes is regarded as a statement to the matrifiliation of the attributes of kingship as well as to the patrifiliation of the politics of kingship. Asante politics can be seen as streched taut between opposing forces: the centripetal one of matrifiliation and the centrifugal one of patrifiliation. In this paper, my concern is to try to lay out more precisely some of the factors involved in systems of Asante succession of the throne, to analyse the meanings of death and mortuary rituals, and to specify some of enthronement and mortuary rituals according to Akan calendar.
Mon article qui en consacré à établir une thèse concernant l'islamisation en Afrique occidentale (“Essai sur l'islamisation en Afrique occidentale: critique de la perspective historique de Triminghain”, Afurika Kenkyu, n. 32) a été l'objet d'une critique de la part de M. Shimada, parue dans la trente-troisième volume de ce Journal. J'ai lu attentivement cette critique, mais je n'y ai éprouvé aucun besoin de rectifier les arguments développés dans mon dernier article, étant donné que celle-là est chargée et de méprises relatives aux faits historiques et d'interprétations tendancieuses de mon étude. Cet article qui est destiné à rèpondre à M. Shimada reprend d'abord les grandes lignes de ma thèse pour la préciser; il indique ensuite de nombreuses erreurs commises par lui dans sa critique.