This paper is a contribution to the study of patterns of co-operation and sharing among the Central Kalahari San. It offers an analysis of social and economic trans-actions among women during the gathering of wild plants and while cooking. During the gathering of wild plants there is little co-operation. Each woman does the work by herself. However women go gathering plants together. In picking them up and digging them out they synchronize their behavior. I argue that this synchronization forms the basis for co-operative behavior and sharing in San society. When cooking women offer frequent help to one another. The food they prepare is consumed in groups larger than the household. Analysis of the interactions during cooking reveals that the food is distributed on a reciprocal basis according to the closeness of the relationship when they were working together. Co-operation itself can be analyzed as a form of sharing: namely as the sharing of activity. This overall sharing system' is maintained, not by formal rules, but by face-to-face interaction.
This paper which is based on original field-work carried out between August 1989 and July 1990 in the Province of Adamawa, Cameroon, presents a typology of medicine men. It offers a description of the initiation by way of dreams, a process which I underwent myself. The initiation by way of dreams is discussed from a psychological perspective. I explore the possibility of reframing the prevailing paradigm of psychotherapy by making use of indigenous African practices. The initiation by way of dreams includes several stages: the induction of dreams, the overcoming of fear in dreams, the induction of a pathological dream state, and dream control. A medicine-man receives his calling by falling ill according to a culturally defined syndrome. The initiation is a tool to reproduce this creative illness. During the process the initiate is made to achieve a state of lucid dreams, of ‘being awake while dreaming’. I argue that the concept of ‘lucid dreams’ provides us with an important clue in the study of ecstasy and possession. It also has great potential in training programs for psychotherapists treating borderline or psychotic patients.
The development crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa was intensified by the end of the 1970s, and the macro-economic imbalances of the countries in the region tended to become worse. The World Bank embarked upon structural adjustment lending (SAL) to African countries from the beginning of the 1980s. SAL has been developed with long-term objectives in mind, it is expected to have more enduring effects than the crisis-oriented operations that were characteristic of the Bank's program lending in the past. In the beginning the Bank made mistakes by designing uniform conditionalities. A two year Special Assistance Program was began in 1983 for expanding SAL in Africa. It proposed three important measures: first, an intensified policy dialogue with recipient government; second, introduction of sector-based SAL rather than comprehensive SAL; and third, encouraging donors' cofinancing SAL with the Bank. The Special Facility for Sub-Saharan Africa began its operation in 1985, and “Africa Facility Credit” was set to help quick-disbursing lending operations in support of structural and sectoral adjustment, rehabilitation and emergency reconstruction. In 1987, the World Bank introduced the Special Program of Assistance (SPA) and IMF set up Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF). SPA covered 23 countries and ESAF assisted 34 countries by 1990. Meanwhile, the Bank called for adoption of Program of Action to mitigate the Social Cost of Adjustment in order to help economically weak groups which were hit by the implementation of structural adjustment programs. It is thought that the lack of good governance, the lack of economic competence, and the lack of development have been affecting to each other in Africa. Thus, economic liberalization and political democratization have become a twin objectives of designing conditionalities in lending operation of the World Bank. But the World Bank found that African countries are lacking capacity to produce, and implement, policies conducive to the attainment of these objectives. It is proposing an African capacity-building facility in 1990. The World Bank has finally reached a conlusion: “To be effective, policies must be sustainable. Policy sustainability, in turn, requires a strong sense of African ownership. There is no better way to foster this sense of ownership than to produce these policies by building up the capacity to produce first-rate indigenous research and design effective policies.” It took nearly one decade for the Bank to appreciate the fact that policy reforms have to be designed within the capacity of African governments.