The study examined the effectiveness of the availability of school facilities to equitable access, sanitation as well as teacher accommodation, using propensity score matching technique on administrative data routinely collected by the Ministry of Education and Sports through the Information Management System. The treatment schools received the grant during the FY2014/15 – FY2016/17, and their outcomes were compared with the control group of schools that have never received the grant. The results from the stratification matching revealed that schools that received the facilities support significantly (at 1%) increased the number of pupils by 10.3 per class, 2.8 per toilet stance and about 2 teachers per house more than the control group of schools. A similar trend of impacts is also observed on estimates from Kernel matching technique. The impact of facilities grant on gender equality in access is rather insignificant, implying that girls are equally likely to attend schooling as do boys. The results imply that a spacious classroom gives the teacher and students a good opportunity for interaction. The availability of toilet stances enhances safe and clean environment as well as positive attitude towards personal hygiene. It is glaring clear that the facilities’ importance can be measured from the uses they provide to learners and instructors even though they have differing degrees of influence on schooling. On the other hand, having a new school facility is good but maintaining them regularly in good condition remains a concern, which can even negate the schooling achievements gained in the medium to long term.
Despite the government and the population’s agreed opinion on the importance of civic education in Madagascar today, the real meaning of such education remains blurred. The purpose of this study is to understand the representation of civic education as introduced in the Malagasy civic education textbooks and how it has evolved from the independence of the country until the present time. Seventeen textbooks, used since the first republic, have been analyzed to draw the understanding of the subject. The focus of civic education changes according to the political regime, from learning about institutions, and moral education, to the introduction of education for sustainable development and global citizenship education. The findings show that the textbooks have been used to establish the successive regimes’ political, ideological, and financial interests, but they also explicitly or tacitly inculcate traditional values that nurture the cultural identity of the Malagasy citizen. The textbooks try to represent the civic education subject as the ideal subject that would transform the students into “decent Malagasy citizens” who firstly recognize their traditional values and principles, and who are socially and civically engaged moral citizens, aware of the local and the global society they are living in.