The localization of cholesterol in benign prostatic hyperplasia (abbreviation: BPH) and prostatic carcinoma was studied by a modification of the Schultz method. A large amount of cholesterol was observed within variable numbers of the acini in BPH. On the other hand, the acini of prostatic carcinoma revealed only a faint Schultz cholesterol reaction but brownish-blue colorations were present in most of the acini. The cholesterol accumulation in the prostate gland was found in the glandular part rather than in the fibromuscular part. It has been suggested that the glandular cells of hyperplastic periurethral gland may be helpful in synthesis origin of cholesterol.
The time of appearance and increase of catecholamine fluorescence in the locus coeruleus (LC) of the rabbit fetus (from the 12th to 27th day of gestation) were studied by using the Falck-Hillarp method. No catecholamine fluorescence was detected in the brain of the 12th and 13th days on gestation. On the 15th day, catecholamine fluorescence could be found in the LC neurons. Thereafter the number of these neurons and the intensity of fluorescence in each was increasing gradually. On the 19th day, fluorescent fibers could be discerned in the neuropil extending rostrally from this nucleus. On the 27th day, the most intense fluorescence was observed in the neurons of all present specimens and many fluorescent fibers with varicosities were found in the neuropil. It is concluded that histofluorescence becomes recognizable in the LC one day later than in both the substantia nigra and cell groups of A1-A3, that catecholamine synthesis in LC neurons may have started in the early fetal life such as on the 15th day of gestation, and that these neurons may store a significant amount of catecholamine before birth.
The immunoperoxidase technique was shown to be applicable to localization of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in 10% formalin fixed paraffin sections of human thyroid tissues including tumors. T4 was demonstrated in the colloid substance and on the luminal surface of the follicular epithelia, and less frequently in the cytoplasm of the non-neoplastic epithelia. On the contrary, cytoplasmic staining of T4 was remarkable in some thyroid tumors. The T3 localization was observed rather in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells than in the colloid substance. It is noteworthy that most of the thyroid neoplasms which were clinically diagnosed as non-functioning showed more or less positive staining for either T4 or T3.
Both DNA and protein levels of cells on the cytological specimens obtained from 12 normal individuals, 3 cases of cervical dysplasia, 2 cases of carcinoma in situ, 11 cases of cervical cancer and 4 cases of endometrial carcinoma were measured by combined DNA and protein cytofluorometry. In cervical dysplasia, the percentage of cells in which DNA values exceeded normal diploid-tetraploid region was high in accordance with the intensity of epithelial atypia. The DNA and protein distribution patterns of severe dysplasia were mostly similar to those of carcinoma in situ. In all the cases of uterine cancer measured, both DNA and protein levels of representative cells were abnormally elevated, exhibiting hyperploidy and aneuploidy in their DNA and protein content. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between DNA and protein values in a linear regression analysis. The parallelism between DNA and protein values was more evident in invasive cervical cancer than in carcinoma in situ. Therefore, it is suggested that an abnormal elevation of both DNA and protein levels in neoplastic cells may be related to tumor invasiveness. The present study suggests that combined DNA and protein cytofluorometry enables us to identify uterine neoplastic cells quantitatively and facilitates discriminate ion of intraepithelial neoplasia from invasive cancer with respect to their DNA and protein levels.
Form birefringence of collagen bundles and pure collagen I was measured, following immersion in water, glycerol solutions and nujol. No differences were found in the curves obtained for collagen bundles as compared to pure collagen I, the lowest optical retardation always corresponding to n=1, 46 (pure glycerol). However, when oil media were used, the values of optical retardation varied greatly. The main objective of this study is to show some advantages of the use of glycerol solutions as media for form birefringence measurement.
The acrosome of spermatozoa contains many enzymes such as hyaluronidase, non-specific esterase and acrosomal proteinase. It is said that these enzymes contribute to removing cumulus cells, corona cells and zona pellucida, respectively. Concerning the release of the enzymes, non-specific esterase differs from both hyaluronidase and acrosomal proteinase. The spermatozoa release the latter two enzymes after the vesiculation of acrosome; on the other hand, they lose the former enzyme while acrosomes are still kept intact. To know the cause of this difference, the precise localization of non-specific esterase was investigated on the spermatid of guinea pig testis and the spermatozoa of epididymis by using the histochemical technique. The results showed that the esterase activity was recognized on the acrosomal membrane until step 8 of spermatogenesis (Clermont, 1960), while it was seen only along the plasma membrane, which covered the acrosomal cap region, in late-stage spermatids and spermatozoa.
The histochemical distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was observed in the major pectoral muscle of a guinea pig that had received 240R thoracic X-irradiation. The irradiation effects were studied at 24, 48 and 72hrs after X-irradiation. Type I fibres of the pectoral muscle were deeply stained showing high activity whereas type II fibres demonstrated minimum enzyme activity. The intermediate fibres had medium levels of G6PD activity. Type II fibres showed more staining at 24 and 48hrs as compared with control muscle. However, at 72hrs all three fibre types showed a marked inhibition of G6PD activity. The significance of these changes suggests that muscle G6PD metabolism generally altered after irradiation, but the specific nature of these changes and their causes still remain unclear.