Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells.
Dendritic cells (DC) are believed to contribute to development of autoimmune sialadenitis, but little is known about their distribution in normal salivary glands. In this study, DC were identified and their distribution was determined in normal human parotid and submandibular glands. For light microscopy, salivary gland sections were stained with H&E or immunocytochemically using antibodies to DC markers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to evaluate the ultrastructural characteristics of DC. In H&E sections, elongated, irregularly shaped nuclei were occasionally seen in the striated and excretory duct epithelium. Immunolabeling with anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD11c and anti-S100 revealed DC with numerous processes extending between ductal epithelial cells, often close to the lumen. Morphometric analyses indicated that HLA-DR-positive DC occupied approximately 4–11% of the duct wall volume. Similar reactive cells were present in acini, intercalated ducts and interstitial tissues. TEM observations revealed cells with indented nuclei containing dense chromatin, pale cytoplasm with few organelles, and lacking junctional attachments to adjacent cells. These results indicate that DC are abundant constituents of normal human salivary glands. Their location within ductal and acinar epithelium suggests a role in responding to foreign antigens and/or maintaining immunological tolerance to salivary proteins.
Expression of aquaporin (AQP) 4 in the surface membranes of skeletal myofibers is well established; however, its functional significance is still unknown. The alterations of AQP4 expressions in dystrophic muscles at RNA and protein levels have been reported in various dystrophic muscles such as dystrophinopathy, dysferlinopathy, and sarcoglycanopathy. We are interested in the relationship between the severity of dystrophic muscle degeneration and the expression of AQP4. Here we compared the AQP4 expression of the limb muscles with that of diaphragms in both mdx and control mice. The dystrophic muscle degeneration, such as rounding profile of cross sectional myofiber shape, dense eosin staining, central nuclei, and endomysial fibrosis in mdx mice, were more marked in diaphragms than in limb muscles. The decrease of AQP4 expression at protein level was more marked in diaphragms than in the limb muscles of mdx mice. However, the expression of AQP4 mRNA in the diaphragms of mdx mice was not reduced in comparison with limb muscles of mdx mice. The present study revealed that AQP4 expression at protein level was correlated with the severity of dystrophic changes in muscle tissues of mdx mice.
Histone modification has been implicated in the regulation of mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the association of differently modified histone H3 with a specific stage of germ cells during spermatogenesis is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the localization of variously modified histone H3 in paraffin-embedded sections of adult mouse testis immunohistochemically, focusing on acetylation at lysine 9 (H3K9ac), lysine 18 (H3K18ac), and lysine 23 (H3K23ac); tri-methylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3); and phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10phos). As a result, we found that there was a significant fluctuation in the modifications; in spermatogonia, the stainings for H3K9ac, H3K18ac, and H3K23ac were strong while that for H3K4me3 was weak. In spermatocytes, the stainings for H3K9ac, H3K18ac, H3K23ac, and H3K4me3 were reduced in the preleptotene to pachytene stage, but in diplotene stage the stainings for H3K18ac, H3K23ac, and H3K4me3 seemed to become intense again. The staining for H3K27me3 was nearly constant throughout these stages. In the ensuing spermiogenesis, a dramatic acetylation and methylation of histone H3 was found in the early elongated spermatids and then almost all signals disappeared in the late elongated spermatids, in parallel with the replacement from histones to protamines. In addition, we confirmed that the staining of histone H3S10phos was exclusively associated with mitotic and meiotic cell division. Based upon the above results, we indicated that the modification pattern of histone H3 is subject to dynamic change and specific to a certain stage of germ cell differentiation during mouse spermatogenesis.