Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation has been recognized as an essential mechanism in the regulation of cellular metabolism and function in various tissues. Serine and threonine protein phosphatases (PP) are divided into four categories: PP1, PP2A, PP2B, and PP2C. At least four isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in rat, PP1α, PP1γ1, PP1γ2, and PP1δ, were isolated. In the present study, we examined the localization and expression of PP1δ in human osteoblastic Saos-2 cells. Anti-PP1δ antibody recognized a protein present in the nucleolar regions in Saos-2 cells. Cellular fractionation revealed that PP1δ is a 37 kDa protein localized in the nucleolus. Nucleophosmin is a nucleolar phosphoprotein and located mainly in the nucleolus. Staining pattern of nucleophosmin in Saos-2 cells was similar to that of PP1δ. PP1δ and nucleophosmin were specifically stained as dots in the nucleus. Dual fluorescence images revealed that PP1δ and nucleophosmin were localized in the same regions in the nucleolus. Similar distribution patterns of PP1δ and nucleophosmin were observed in osteoblastic MG63 cells. The interaction of PP1δ and nucleophosmin was also shown by immunoprecipitation and Western analysis. These results indicated that PP1δ associate with nucleophosmin directly in the nucleolus and suggested that nucleophosmin is one of the candidate substrate for PP1δ.
S100 proteins comprise a large family of Ca2+-binding proteins and exhibit a variety of intra- and extracellular functions. Despite our growing knowledge about the biology of S100 proteins in some tissues such as brain and smooth muscle, little is known about S100 proteins in the normal mammalian reproductive tissue. In the present study, we investigated the distribution pattern of S100A6 (alternatively named calcyclin) in the murine ovary by immunohistochemical study using specific antibody. S100A6 was localized substantially in the cytoplasm of luteal cells, with concomitant expression of S100A11, another S100 protein, but not in the other type of cells such as oocytes, follicle epithelial cells (granulosa cells), and cells of stroma including theca interna cells in the murine ovary. S100A6-immunoreactive corpora lutea (CLs) were divided into two types: homogeneously and heterogeneously stained CLs, and possibly they may represent differentiating and mature CL, respectively. Our regression analysis revealed that expression level of S100A6 positively correlated with that of cytochrome P450 11A, a steroidogenic enzyme in the heterogeously stained CL. These results suggested that S100A6 may contribute to differentiation of steroidogenic activity of luteal cells in a synergistic manner with S100A11 by facilitating some shared functions.
The TRK-fused gene (TFG in human, Tfg in rat) was originally identified in human papillary thyroid cancer as a chimeric form of the NTRK1 gene. It has been reported that the gene product (TFG) plays a role in regulating phosphotyrosine-specific phosphatase-1 activity. However, no information regarding the localization of Tfg in rat tissues is available. In this study, we investigated the expression of Tfg mRNA in normal rat tissues using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We also produced an antibody against Tfg gene products and examined the localization of TFG in the rat brain and retina. The RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that two types of Tfg mRNA were expressed in rat tissues: the conventional form of Tfg (cTfg) and a novel variant form, retinal Tfg (rTfg). RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that cTfg was ubiquitously expressed in rat tissues, while rTfg was predominantly expressed in the brain and retina. Western blot analysis demonstrated two bands with molecular weights of about 30 kDa and 50 kDa in the rat brain. Immunohistochemistry indicated that TFG proteins were predominantly expressed by neurons in the brain. In the rat retina, intense TFG-immunoreactivity was detected in the layer of rods and cones and the outer plexiform layer.
We aimed to identify whether there is any correlation between chromosomal/genetic changes, nuclear morphology and the histological grade of urothelial carcinomas of the urinary bladder. Morphometry and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) techniques were applied to 250 cells in five low-grade cases and 350 cells in seven high-grade cases of urothelial carcinoma. Compared with low-grade carcinomas, most high-grade cases showed larger and more variable nuclear size, more frequent polysomy of centromere enumeration probes (CEPs) 3, 7 and 17, and the loss of the 9p21 locus. The number of CEP signals in cells was increased as the nuclear area of the cells became larger. Cells with gains in two or more types of CEP had significantly larger nuclei than cells with normal FISH signal patterns. In conclusion, the present study indicates that there was a correlation between nuclear morphology and chromosomal/genetic changes which were related to histological grading. Thus, we show that differences in the chromosomal/genetic aberrations present in low- and high-grade tumours can affect not only nuclear morphology but also the histopathological and clinical behaviour of urothelial carcinomas.
The detection of image motion is important to vision. Direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DS-RGCs) respond strongly to stimuli moving in one direction of motion and are strongly inhibited by stimuli moving in the opposite direction. In this article, we investigated the distributions of kainate glutamate receptor subtypes KA1 and KA2 on the dendritic arbors of DS-RGCs in developing (5, 10) days postnatal (PN) and adult mouse retina to search for anisotropies. The distribution of kainate receptor subtypes on the DS-RGCs was determined using antibody immunocytochemistry. To identify their characteristic morphology, DS-RGCs were injected with Lucifer yellow. The triple-labeled images of dendrites, kinesin II, and receptors were visualized by confocal microscopy and were reconstructed from high-resolution confocal images. We found no evidence of asymmetry in any of the kainate receptor subunits examined on the dendritic arbors of both the On and Off layers of DS-RGCs in all periods of developing and adult stage that would predict direction selectivity.
The cell adhesion molecule-1 (Cadm1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. In the mouse testis, Cadm1 is expressed in the earlier spermatogenic cells up to early pachytene spermatocytes and also in elongated spermatids, but not in Sertoli cells. Cadm1-deficient mice have male infertility due to defective spermatogenesis, in which detachment of spermatids is prominent while spermatocytes appear intact. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the impaired spermatogenesis caused by Cadm1 deficiency, we performed DNA microarray analysis of global gene expression in the testis compared between Cadm1-deficient and wild-type mice. Out of the 25 genes upregulated in Cadm1-deficient mice, we took a special interest in myelin protein zero-like 2 (Mpzl2), another cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The levels of Mpzl2 mRNA increased by 20-fold and those of Mpzl2 protein increased by 2-fold in the testis of Cadm1-deficient mice, as analyzed with quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Mpzl2 mRNA and protein are localized in the earlier spermatogenic cells but not in elongated spermatids or Sertoli cells, in both wild-type and Cadm1-deficient mice. These results suggested that Mpzl2 can compensate for the deficiency of Cadm1 in the earlier spermatogenic cells.
The TRK-fused gene (TFG in human, Tfg in rat) was originally identified in human papillary thyroid cancer as a chimeric form of the NTRK1 gene. It was since reported that the gene product (TFG) plays a role in regulating phosphotyrosine-specific phosphatase-1 activity. As shown in the accompanying paper, we produced an antibody to rat TFG and used it to localize TFG to selected neurons in specific regions. In the present study, we mapped the TFG-positive neurons in the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord of rats. In the brainstem, neurons intensely positive for TFG were distributed in the raphe nuclei, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus, the reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons, and some cranial nerve nuclei such as the trigeminal nuclei, the vestibulocochlear nuclei, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and motor neurons in the spinal anterior horn were also positive for TFG. These results provide fundamental data for studying the functions of TFG in the brain.
Recent studies have revealed that signals from neural crest (NC) derivatives regulate the mass, proliferation, and maturation of beta cells in developing fetal pancreas. However, little is known about the cellular distribution of NC derivatives during pancreatic development or the process whereby the developing islets are enclosed. We studied the temporal and spatial distribution of NC derivatives and endocrine cells at each developmental stage. At embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) of mouse embryo, NC derivatives that migrated to the prospective pancreatic region were distributed in close proximity to pancreatic epithelial cells. As development advanced, most NC derivatives progressively surrounded endocrine rather than exocrine cells, and were distributed in closer proximity to alpha cells rather than to beta cells. At E20, approximately 70% of the NC derivatives enclosing endocrine cells were distributed in close proximity to alpha cells. Moreover, the expression of SynCAM, a Ca2+-independent homophilic trans-cell adhesion molecule, was confirmed from E16.5 on and was more remarkable at the cell boundaries of alpha cells and NC derivatives. These findings suggest that NC derivatives might be distributed in close proximity to alpha cells as a result of homophilic binding of SynCAM expressed by alpha cells and NC derivatives during islet development.
We evaluated whether inhibiting gene expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used for an in vivo model using a germ cell-specific gene (Tex101) as a model target in mouse testis. We generated plasmid-based expression vectors of siRNA targeting the Tex101 gene and transfected them into postnatal day 10 mouse testes by in vivo electroporation. After optimizing the electroporation conditions using a vector transfected into the mouse testis, a combination of high- and low-voltage pulses showed excellent transfection efficiency for the vectors with minimal tissue damage, but gene suppression was transient. Gene suppression by in vivo electroporation may be helpful as an alternative approach when designing experiments to unravel the basic role of testicular molecules.