Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes cell survival and differentiation in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously, we reported that BDNF is produced by salivary glands under acute immobilization stress in rats. However, expression of BDNF is poorly understood in humans, although salivary gland localization of BDNF in rodents has been demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the expression and localization of BDNF in the human submandibular gland (HSG) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ELISA. BDNF was consistently localized in HSG serous and ductal cells, as detected by ISH and IHC, with reactivity being stronger in serous cells. In addition, immunoreactivity for BDNF was observed in the saliva matrix of ductal cavities. Western blotting detected one significant immunoreactive 14 kDa band in the HSG and saliva. Immunoreactivities for salivary BDNF measured by ELISA in humans were 40.76±4.83 pg/mL and 52.64±8.42 pg/mL, in men and women, respectively. Although salivary BDNF concentrations in females tended to be higher than in males, the concentrations were not significantly different. In conclusion, human salivary BDNF may originate from salivary glands, as the HSG appears to produce BDNF.
In visceral pain, anxiety and pain occur simultaneously, but the etiogenesis of this effect is not yet well-described. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to be associated with the affective response to noxious stimuli. The aim of the current study is to define the role of ACC extracellular signal-regulated (ERK)-1 and-2 (ERK1/2) activity in the development of pain-related anxiety/depression and the nocifensive response in acetic acid (AA)-elicited visceral pain. The model of visceral pain was created by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of AA to female Kunming mice. We found that AA injection resulted in a dynamic, bilateral ERK1/2 activation pattern in the ACC. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation 2 hr after AA injection by subcutaneous (sc) injection of the mitogen-activating extracellular kinase (MEK) inhibitor, SL327, had no effect on the nocifensive responses, but did attenuate anxiety-like behavior, as determined by elevated plus-maze and open-field testing results. These data suggest that AA-induced visceral pain activates expression of ACC ERK1/2, which regulates visceral pain-related anxiety, but not the nocifensive response.
This study aims to develop new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse and human podoplanin. Rats were immunized with synthetic peptides, corresponding to amino acids 38–51 of mouse podoplanin or human podoplanin which is 100% homologous to the same site of monkey podoplanin; anti-mouse podoplanin mAb PMab-1 (IgG2a) and anti-human mAb NZ-1.2 (IgG2a) were established. In immunocytochemistry, the mouse melanoma B16-F10 and mouse podoplanin (mPDPN)-expressed CHO transfectant were stained by PMab-1; human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) and human podoplanin (hPDPN)-expressed squamous cell carcinoma HSC3 transfectant, were stained by NZ-1.2. Western-blot analysis detected an about 40-kDa protein in CHO-mPDPN and B16-F10 by PMab-1, and in HSC3-hPDPN and LEC by NZ-1.2. In frozen sections, PMab-1 reacted with mouse kidney, pulmonary alveoli, pulmonary pleura, and salivary gland myoepithelial cells while NZ-1.2 reacted to the human salivary gland myoepithelial cells. The immunostaining of paraffin-embedded sections also showed the reaction of PMab-1 or NZ-1.2 to the mouse or monkey kidney glomerulus, pulmonary alveoli, and lung lymphatic vessels. These results indicate that the two novel rat mAbs to the mouse and human/monkey podoplanin are useful for Western-blot and immunostaining of somatic tissues on paraffin-embedded sections as well as frozen sections.
Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 45 (1): 15-23 (2012) The authors would like to correct an error in the affiliation. Affiliation 2: “Department of Psychology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan” should read “Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan”
Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 45 (1): 57-64 (2012) The authors would like to correct an error in the affiliation. Affiliation 2: “Department of Psychology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan” should read “Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan”