Rab20 is a member of the Rab GTPase family, but its implication in macropinocytosis is unclear. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of Rab20 in RAW264 macrophages by the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused Rab20. It was shown that Rab20 was transiently associated with macropinosomal membranes. During the early stage of macropinosome formation, Rab20 was slightly localized on the circular ruffles (macropinocytic cups), the precursor forms of macropinosomes, and was increasingly recruited to the newly formed macropinosomes. Although Rab20 was colocalized with Rab5 and Rab21 on macropinosomal membranes, the association of Rab20 with macropinosomes persisted even after the dissociations of Rab5 and Rab21 from macropinosomal membranes. Rab20 was then colocalized with Rab7 and Lamp1, late endosomal/lysosomal markers, on macropinosomes for a while. Our data indicate that Rab20 is a novel component of macropinocytic pathway and functions at long-standing stages from early to late macropinosome maturation.
FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain.
Morphological profiles of lymphatic vessels in adult zebrafish trunk and ovary were studied by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The present immunohistochemistry for Prox1 was successful in demonstrating lymphatic vessels in zebrafish. The zebrafish trunk revealed two types of bilateral longitudinal lymphatic trunks draining lymph centripetally along dorsal aorta and posterior cardinal veins. Large honeycomb lymphatic sinus was further shown around common cardinal veins. In the zebrafish ovary, the lymphatic vessels, comprising endothelial cells only, encompassed arterioles in their lumen. This peculiar structure appeared to be conserved in vertebrates including mammals and might serve for control of blood temperature and tissue homeostasis. The present study is first to delineate lymphatic vessels in adult zebrafish by immunohistochemistry. Our immunohistochemical results showed usefulness of immunostaining for Prox1 not only for demonstration of lymphatic vessels in zebrafish, but also for examination of their function and dynamics in pathophysiological condition.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic moderate-intensity training in order to prevent muscle atrophy with a focus on TNF-α and atrogin-1/MAFbx as main proteolytic indicators. Hindlimb unloading model of mice received treadmill running exercise for 1 hr per day during hindlimb unloading period of 6 weeks. The gastrocnemius muscle mass, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in the muscle fiber were higher in the exercised group, while TNF-α and atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA expressions were significantly lower. Results in the present study showed that chronic exercise could prevent over expression of TNF-α and atrogin-1/MAFbx in the atrophied skeletal muscle, providing further support to the effects of chronic exercise training on muscle atrophy.