The aim of this study was to characterize the vascular remodeling in the external iliac artery (EIA) and the lower leg muscles in a rabbit shunt model created between the distal stump of the occluded femoral artery and the accompanying vein. Histology and immunoconfocal microscopy were used in this study. We found that: 1) both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated eNOS (P-eNOS) proteins were significantly increased in the shunt-side EIA; 2) matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression was 5.5 times in shunt side EIA over that in normal EIA; 3) intercellular adhension molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was strongly induced in endothelial cells (EC) and vascular adhension molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression was significantly increased in both EC and the adventitia of the shunt-side EIA; 4) augmentation of cell proliferation and extracellular proteolysis by macrophage infiltration was observed in shunt-side EIA; 5) cell proliferation was active in shunt side EIA, but quiet in shunt side lower leg’s arterial vessels; 6) capillary density in shunt side lower leg muscles was 2 times over that in normal side. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the paradigm that the power of shear stress takes the reins in arteriogenesis, whereas ischemia in angiogenesis, but not in arteriogenesis.
Acute high intraocular pressure (HIOP) can induce plastic changes of retinal synapses during which the expression of the presynaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN) has a distinct spatiotemporal pattern from the inner plexiform layer to the outer plexiform layer. We identified the types of neurotransmitters in the retina that participated in this process and determined the response of these neurotransmitters to HIOP induction. The model of acute HIOP was established by injecting normal saline into the anterior chamber of the rat eye. We found that the number of glutamate-positive cells increased successively from the inner part to the outer part of the retina (from the ganglion cell layer to the inner nuclear layer to the outer nuclear layer) after HIOP, which was similar to the spatiotemporal pattern of SYN expression (internally to externally) following HIOP. However, the distribution and intensity of GABA immunoreactivity in the retina did not change significantly at different survival time post injury and had no direct correlation with SYN expression. Our results suggested that the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate might participate in the plastic process of retinal synapses following acute HIOP, but no evidence was found for the role of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.
Molecular genetic analyses of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pathological specimens taken at biopsy or autopsy, are occasionally compromised because the DNA molecules therein are inevitably degraded. Furthermore, since these tissue samples comprise various cell types, the analyses based on mixtures of such heterogeneous populations often fail to reflect the nature of the affected cells. In the present study, to elucidate the contribution of β-catenin gene mutation to the fundic gland polyp and the heterotopic gastric mucosa in the duodenum, we successfully introduced an agarose-bead mediated technique as an effectual tool for retrospective morphology-oriented genetic analyses. Microdissected samples were embedded in low-melting agarose, and directly treated with proteinase K. A fragment of the agarose-bead was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction to analyze β-catenin mutation. Of the six cases of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the duodenum associated with fundic gland polyps, one showed a common 1-bp missense mutation at codon 37 shared by both the fundic gland polyp and the heterotopic gastric mucosa. Alternatively, a 1-bp silent mutation at codon 33 and missense mutation at codon 32 were identified only in the heterotopic gastric mucosa. Agarose-bead mediated technique shows superior sensitivity to the previously described techniques and is an effectual tool for retrospective morphology-oriented genetic analyses using a large number of archival pathological samples stored for long periods in the pathology laboratory.
It is important to understand the onset of periodontal disease in terms of bacterial infection and host factors. Host-bacteria interactions can be elicited in human cultured cells and animal models, but these models provide only limited biological information about human host reactions against bacterial attacks. Development of an in vivo model using human gingival tissue is needed. We established an in vivo model using nu/nu mice and evaluated host defense following bacterial infection in human gingiva. Human gingival samples were collected from periodontitis patients and transplanted in nu/nu mouse subdermis. After 2 weeks, human characteristics were confirmed by positive immunohistochemical reactions for human-specific markers. We used this model to investigate human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2), an antimicrobial peptide that contributes to initial defense against bacterial invasion. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry, we investigated whether hBD-2 expression was induced in human gingiva as a response to Porphyromonas gingivalis as a periodontal pathogen. Two hours after infection with bacteria, we detected increased expression of hBD-2 mRNA, which was localized in the epithelium of human gingiva. Using our in vivo model, we concluded that increased hBD-2 may play an important role in early defense from bacterial infection in human gingival epithelium.
Diabetic conditions promote glomerulosclerosis by mesangial cells but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The present study evaluated the expression of toll-like receptor 4 in glomerular endothelial cells in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mouse (ICR-STZ) and the type 2 diabetic KK/TaJcl mouse which were fed a high fat diet feed (KK/Ta-HF). In the ICR-STZ and KK/Ta-HF almost glomeruli were immunostained with anti-TLR4 but there was no glomerulus immunostained by ani-TLR4 in the control ICR and KK/Ta. Laser-scanning confocal microscopy showed that the TLR4-positive region did not coincide with the podoplanin-positive region but coincide with the PECAM-1- and VE-cadherin-positive regions in the glomeruli of the ICR-STZ and KK/Ta-HF. The in situ hybridization showed that almost signals for TLR4 mRNA were present in the glomerulus of the ICR-STZ and KK/Ta-HF to a stronger extent than in the control ICR and KK/Ta. These suggest that glomerular endothelial cells usually express the TLR4 gene and hyperglycemia in the diabetic condition induces the TLR4 protein expression in the glomerular capillary endothelial cells. Cytokine productions through the TLR signaling pathway in glomerular endothelial cells may allow mesangial cells to produce extracellular matrix proteins in the diabetic milieu.
We devised an experimental design in primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes for studying hepatocyte differentiation over a short period. In the present study, hepatocytes were first cultured for 3 days in dexamethasone-supplemented medium and then for an additional 3 days in dexamethasone- or epidermal growth factor-supplemented medium. In hepatocytes cultured continuously in dexamethasone-supplemented medium, the expression of connexin 32 increased and bile canaliculus-like structures and localization of alkaline phosphatase in the plasma membrane around bile canaliculus-like structures were maintained. Few cells incorporated bromodeoxyuridine. On the other hand, in most of the hepatocytes cultured in epidermal growth factor-supplemented medium, the expression of connexin 32 was minimally recognized, bile canaliculus-like structures were shortened or eliminated, and alkaline phosphatase was localized as numerous fine spots throughout the cytoplasm. More than 20% of all hepatocytes incorporated bromodeoxyuridine. The present study suggests that in hepatocytes, there is a close relationship among connexin 32 expression, the maintenance of bile canaliculus-like structures, and the localization of alkaline phosphatase to the plasma membrane around the bile canaliculus-like structures, and this indicates that the present experimental model is useful for studying hepatocyte differentiation over a short period.
Expression of (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was studied in rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed that cells expressing (P)RR mRNA were widely distributed in the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Double-staining using in situ hybridization for (P)RR mRNA and immunohistochemistry for the pituitary hormones showed that (P)RR mRNA was expressed in most of the GH cells and ACTH cells in the anterior lobe. (P)RR mRNA was also expressed in a few prolactin cells and TSH cells, but not in LH cells. The present study has shown for the first time the distribution of (P)RR mRNA expressing cells in the rat pituitary gland. These findings suggest that (P)RR plays physiological roles in the pituitary gland, such as the modulation of the pituitary hormone secretion.