We previously demonstrated that macrophages exhibit endoplasmic reticulum fragmentation under cholesterol-rich conditions, which results in the generation of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1)-associated late endosomes/lysosomes (ACAT1-LE). ACAT1-LE efficiently esterify free cholesterol in loco, even with abnormal egress of free cholesterol from late endosomes. Because impaired free cholesterol transport from late endosomes results in Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC), the induction of ACAT1-LE is a potential therapeutic intervention for NPC. To examine the effects of ACAT1-LE induction on intracellular cholesterol metabolism, we incubated bone marrow-derived macrophages possessing NPC phenotype (npc1–/–) with methyl-β-cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex (mβCD-cho), a cholesterol donor. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that mβCD-cho treatment of npc1–/– macrophages resulted in significant colocalization of signals from ACAT1 and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, a late endosome/lysosome marker. npc1–/– macrophages contained significant amounts of free cholesterol with negligible amounts of cholesteryl ester, while wild-type macrophages possessed the same amounts of both cholesterols. mβCD-cho treatment also induced marked restoration of cholesterol esterification activity. mβCD-cho administration in neonate npc1–/– mice improved survival. These results indicate that ACAT1-LE induction in npc1–/– mice corrects impaired intracellular cholesterol metabolism and that restoring cholesterol esterification improves prognosis of npc1–/–. These data suggest that ACAT1-LE induction is a potential alternative therapeutic strategy for NPC.
Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are mucin-producing neoplasms of the main and/or branch pancreatic ducts. To assess differences between various IPMN subtypes, immunohistochemical markers of gastric surface mucous cells (MUC5AC), gastric gland mucous cells (MUC6 and GlcNAcα1→4Galβ→R), gastric pyloric and duodenal epithelial cells (PDX1), intestinal cells (MUC2 and CDX2), small intestinal cells (CPS1) and large intestinal cells (SATB2) were evaluated in 33 surgically treated IPMNs. MUC2 expression classified IPMNs into gastric (n=17), intestinal (n=8) and mixed gastric and intestinal type (collision=7, composite=1). No differences in age or sex were observed among these types. MUC5AC and PDX1 were expressed in all IPMNs. MUC6 expression was higher in gastric and mixed types than in intestinal type. GlcNAcα1→4Galβ→R was detected in gastric and mixed type, but not in intestinal type. MUC2 and CDX2 expression were higher in intestinal type than gastric and mixed type. CPS1 expression was higher in intestinal type than gastric type. SATB2 was not observed in any IPMNs. Frequent abrupt transition between the two IPMN types in mixed-type IPMNs was observed. Gastric pyloric and small intestinal differentiation are characteristic of gastric and intestinal type IPMN, respectively, and these two IPMN types may have distinct pathogenesis.
Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) dynamics in isolated myocytes differ between the atria and ventricles due to the distinct t-tubular distributions. Although cellular aspects of ventricular [Ca2+]i dynamics in the heart have been extensively studied, little is known about those of atrial myocytes in situ. Here we visualized precise [Ca2+]i dynamics of atrial myocytes in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts by rapid-scanning confocal microscopy. Of 16 fluo-4-loaded hearts imaged during pacing up to 4-Hz, five hearts showed spatially uniform Ca2+ transients on systole among individual cells, whereas no discernible [Ca2+]i elevation developed during diastole. In contrast, the remaining hearts showed non-uniform [Ca2+]i dynamics within and among the cells especially under high-frequency (4 Hz) excitation, where subcellular cluster-like [Ca2+]i rises or wave-like [Ca2+]i propagation occurred on excitation. Such [Ca2+]i inhomogeneity was more pronounced at high-frequency pacing, showing beat-to-beat Ca2+ transient alternans. Despite such non-uniform dynamics, cessation of burst pacing of the atria was not followed by emergence of spontaneous Ca2+ waves, indicating minor Ca2+-releasing potentials of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In summary, rat atria display a propensity to show non-uniform [Ca2+]i dynamics on systole due to impaired Ca2+-release from the SR and paucity of t-tubules. Our results provide an important basis for understanding atrial pathophysiology.
Activated platelets form platelet–leukocyte aggregates in the circulation in inflammatory diseases. We investigated whether activated platelets in inflamed skin tissues are phagocytized and removed by neutrophils. To investigate the kinetics of platelets and neutrophils, we immunohistochemically examined the spatiotemporal distribution of them in a murine model of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB)-induced dermatitis by using confocal and structured illumination microscopy. Four hours after elicitation, aggregates of CD41-positive platelets were adhered to CD31-positive endothelial cells within the vessels, and CD62P and PF4, markers of activated platelets, were expressed on platelet aggregates. At 8 hour post-elicitation, fragmented CD41-positive platelets were located both inside and outside vessels. Twenty-four hours after elicitation, the number of Ly-6G-positive neutrophils ingesting fragmented CD41-positive platelets outside vessels was increased, and CD62P and PF4 expression on the phagocytosed platelets was no longer observed. Disc-shaped CD41-positive platelets were not found outside vessels at any time during the experiment. Our data revealed that aggregates of activated platelets inside vessels were ingested and removed by neutrophils in the early stage of TNCB-induced dermatitis, suggesting that the process of removal of activated platelets by neutrophils may play an important role not only in the early phase of skin inflammation but also in other types of acute inflammation.
The TRK-fused gene (TFG) was originally identified in chromosome translocation events, creating a pair of oncogenes in some cancers, and was recently demonstrated as the causal gene of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement. Recently, we cloned an alternative splicing variant of Tfg from a cDNA library of the rat retina, tentatively naming it retinal Tfg (rTfg). Although the common form of Tfg is ubiquitously expressed in most rat tissues, rTfg expression is localized to the central nervous system. In this study, we produced an antibody against an rTFG-specific amino acid sequence and used it to examine the localization of rTFG-like protein in the rat retina by immunohistochemistry and Western blots. Western blot analysis showed that the antibody detected a single band of 24 kDa in the rat retina. When we examined rTFG recombinant protein, the antibody detected two bands of about 42 kDa and 24 kDa. The results suggest that the 24 kDa rTFG-like protein is a fragment of rTFG. In our immunohistochemical studies of the rat retina, rTFG-like immunoreactivity was observed in all calbindin D-28K-positive horizontal cells and in some syntaxin 1-positive amacrine cells (ACs). In addition, the rTFG-like immunopositive ACs were actually glycine transporter 1-positive glycinergic or glutamate decarboxylase-positive GABAergic ACs. Our findings indicate that this novel 24 kDa rTFG-like protein may play a specific role in retinal inhibitory interneurons.