Salivary glands repair and regenerate following various types of injuries and surgical procedures. However, the tissue responses induced in the contralateral glands have yet to be elucidated in detail. Hsp27, a member of the heat-shock protein (Hsp) family, is strongly expressed in physiological environments, particularly during development. Hsp27 was previously shown to play a role in the regulation of acinar cell proliferation and differentiation in the rat submandibular gland.The present study performed the following surgical treatments on the right submandibular glands of adult rats: 1) duct ligation followed by unligation after one week; 2) partial sialoadenectomy; and 3) total sialoadenectomy. Immunohistochemistry for Hsp27 and Ki67 was performed in the experimental and normal contralateral glands, and localization was histologically and morphometrically analyzed.The results obtained revealed the localization of Hsp27 to the intercalated duct in the submandibular glands of non-treated rats. The expression of Hsp27 was strongly induced in both the uninjured contralateral control glands as well as treated glands of experimental rats regardless of the surgical procedure performed. The number of Hsp27-immunopositive cells increased rapidly following surgery, and subsequently returned to the same level as that in non-treated rats after 4 weeks. However, no marked changes were observed in the number of Ki67-immunopositive proliferating cells. Therefore, the change in the number of Hsp27-immunopositive cells may have contributed to compensatory hypertrophy. The results of the present study indicate that the expression of Hsp27 in the intercalated duct in the submandibular gland may play a role in the differentiation of acinar cells.
The ICR-derived glomerulonephritis (ICGN) mouse is a unique model of nephrotic syndrome, and albuminuria becomes evident in a neonatal stage, due to a genetic mutation of tensin2. We previously provided evidence that an apparent decrease in nephrin, caused by tensin2-deficiencient states, leads to podocytopathy, albuminuria and eventually, chronic renal failure. In general, glomerular endothelial cells (ECs) function as a barrier through tight attachment of glomerular basement membrane to podocytes, while decreased ECs can worsen renal failure. Nevertheless, it is still unknown whether glomerular ECs are altered under the tensin-2-deficient states during the manifestation of chronic renal failure. Herein, we examined the changes of glomerular ECs, with focus on the expression of PECAM-1 and VE-cadherin (EC-specific markers), or of α-SMA (myofibroblast marker) in this mouse model by histological methods. Compared with the non-nephrotic (+/nep) mice, the nephrotic (nep/nep) mice exhibited the reduced expression of PECAM-1, or of VE-cadherin, in glomerular area. Notably, some glomerular ECs showed the positive stainings for both PECAM-1 and α-SMA, suggesting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) during progression of glomerular sclerosis. This is the first report showing that a decrease in glomerular ECs, at least in part, via EndoMT is involved in tensin2-deficient pathological conditions.
It is difficult to understand the in vivo permeability of thymic blood vessels, but “in vivo cryotechnique” (IVCT) is useful to capture dynamic blood ﬂow conditions. We injected various concentrations of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with or without quantum dots into anesthetized mice via left ventricles to examine architectures of thymic blood vessels and their permeability at different time intervals. At 30 sec after HRP (100 mg/ml) injection, enzyme reaction products were weakly detected in interstitium around some thick blood vessels of corticomedullary boundary areas, but within capillaries of cortical areas. At 1 and 3 min, they were more widely detected in interstitium around all thick blood vessels of the boundary areas. At 10 min, they were diffusely detected throughout interstitium of cortical areas, and more densely seen in medullary areas. At 15 min, however, they were uniformly detected throughout interstitium outside blood vessels. At 30 min, phagocytosis of HRP by macrophages was scattered throughout the interstitium, which was accompanied by decrease of HRP reaction intensity in interstitial matrices. Thus, time-dependent HRP distributions in living mice indicate that molecular permeability and diffusion depend on different areas of thymic tissues, resulting from topographic variations of local interstitial flow starting from corticomedullary areas.
Emerin is a LEM domain-containing integral membrane protein of the vertebrate nuclear envelope. Recently it has been reported that emerin regulates tissue-specific gene/protein expression. We studied the relationship between emerin expression and follicle function in normal and hyperplastic human thyroid tissues using immunohistochemistry and statistical methods. Emerin immunoreactivity was heterogeneous among follicular cells and follicles in normal thyroid tissue. It tended to be strong in the nuclei of tall follicular cells of small follicles and weak or negative in the nuclei of flat follicular cells of large follicles. Follicles with strong expression of emerin were also strongly positive for thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroxine (T4) in follicular cells and colloid substance, suggesting active functioning follicles. In contrast, large follicles with weak expression of emerin were also weak or negative for Tg and T4. Emerin immunoreactivity was strong in almost all nuclei of hyperplastic follicular cells in Graves’ disease tissues. These findings suggest that emerin expression may be related with follicular function and may contribute to the understanding of hormonogenesis in normal thyroid follicles.
High expression of SQSTM1/p62 (p62) protein, which functions as a hub for various cellular signaling pathways, has been detected in several human cancers. However, the clinicopathological impact of high p62 expression is largely unknown in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Here, the expression level of p62 in primary EOCs (n=266) was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and its clinical significance was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the impact of p62 expression on overall survival. p62 was expressed in the cytoplasm (Cyto) and/or nucleus (Nuc) in primary EOCs, and an expression subtype (CytoHigh/NucLow), showing high expression in the cytoplasm but low expression in the nucleus, was significantly correlated with serous carcinoma (P<0.001), advanced stage (P=0.005), presence of residual tumor (P<0.001), and low overall survival rate (P=0.013). Furthermore, in serous carcinomas (n=107), the p62 CytoHigh/NucLow subtype was significantly correlated with low overall survival rate (P=0.019) as an independent factor (P=0.044). Thus, our findings suggest that high expression of cytoplasmic p62 may be a novel prognostic biomarker in EOC, particularly in serous carcinoma.
Excretory organs contain epithelial cells that form a filtration membrane specialized for ultrafiltration to produce primary urine. In vertebrates, the filtration membrane is made up of slit diaphragm (SD) formed by glomerular podocytes. Basal metazoans such as flatworms are also known have filtration epithelial cells, called flame cells, which exhibit SD-like structures. The molecular components of podocyte SD have been studied in detail, while those of the SD-like structures in basal metazoans including flatworms remain to be clarified. To determine whether the SD-like structures in flatworms have molecular components common to the SD in vertebrate podocytes, we examined the expression of gene homologue for mammalian nephrin, which encodes an essential transmembrane protein that participates in the formation of the SD, in a species of flatworms, planarian (Dugesia japonica). Flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body of the planarian, but the nephrin-expressing cells identified by in situ hybridization were mainly detected at body periphery excluding head region. The distribution pattern of nephrin-expressing cells was similar to that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing neoblasts, which are pluripotent stem cells characteristic to planarians. These findings indicated that the SD-like structures can be formed without the Nephrin protein in planarian flame cells.