Cartilage tissues possess intrinsic circadian oscillators, which influence chondrocyte function and chondrocyte specific gene expression. However, it is not fully understood how chondrogenesis influences the circadian clock, and vice versa. Thus, we established ATDC5 cells which were stably transfected with the Bmal1:luc reporter and revealed robust circadian rhythms in ATDC5 cells during differentiation. Moreover, the circadian clock in ATDC5 cells was strongly reset by PTH in a circadian time-dependent manner. This assay system is expected to be useful for investigating the role of the circadian clock in chondrogenic differentiation and the precise molecular mechanisms underlying PTH action on the chondrocyte circadian clock.
Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate the distribution of the chemokine CXCL14, in the mouse pancreas. CXCL14-immunoreactive cells were detected in the peripheral region of the pancreatic islets and were immunoreactive for somatostatin, but not for glucagon, insulin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Immunoelectron microscopy indicated that the CXCL14-like peptide and somatostatin co-existed in the secretory granules. CXCL14, secreted from somatostatin-containing cells, may modulate insulin secretion in a paracrine fashion, and play a novel role in glucose homeostasis in addition to its well-known chemotactic activities.
The neuropeptide kisspeptin plays an important role in fertility and the onset of puberty, stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to activate the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Several studies have demonstrated a morphological interaction between kisspeptin- and GnRH-expressing neurons; however, few have addressed the interaction of kisspeptin with other neuronal subtypes. We recently showed that fibers immunoreactive for kisspeptin were densely distributed in the dorsal part of the arcuate nucleus. These fibers were found in close proximity to GnRH and tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons. In the present study, using biotinylated kisspeptin, we established a visualization method for identifying kisspeptin binding sites on TIDA neurons. Biotinylated kisspeptin bound to the cell bodies of TIDA neurons and surrounding fibers, suggesting that TIDA neurons express sites of action for kisspeptin. Our assay also detected biotinylation signals from kisspeptin binding to GnRH fibers in the median eminence, but not to cell bodies of GnRH neurons in the medial preoptic area. Positive signals were completely eliminated by addition of excess non-labeled kisspeptin. This method enabled us to detect kisspeptin binding sites on specific neural structures and neuronal fibers.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in creating cellular environments in tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that ECM components are localized in anterior pituitary cells and affect cell activity. Thus, clarifying the mechanism responsible for ECM maintenance would improve understanding of gland function. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases and participate in ECM degradation. In this study, we investigated whether cells expressing TIMPs are present in rat anterior pituitary gland. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze expression of the TIMP family (TIMP1-4), and cells producing TIMPs in the gland were identified by using in situ hybridization. Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2, and TIMP3 mRNAs was detected, and the TIMP-expressing cells were located in the gland. The TIMP-expressing cells were also investigated by means of double-staining with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. Double-staining revealed that TIMP1 mRNA was expressed in folliculostellate cells. TIMP2 mRNA was detected in folliculostellate cells, prolactin cells, and thyroid-stimulating hormone cells. TIMP3 mRNA was identified in endothelial cells, pericytes, novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells, and folliculostellate cells. These findings indicate that TIMP1-, TIMP2-, and TIMP3-expressing cells are present in rat anterior pituitary gland and that they are involved in maintaining ECM components.
The biological characteristics and roles of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 protein (IMP3) expression in small-intestinal adenocarcinoma were investigated. The value of IMP3 immunostaining in the diagnosis of small-intestinal epithelial lesions was also evaluated. Immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in normal small-intestinal mucosa adjacent to adenoma and adenocarcinoma lesions, and inflamed duodenal and ileal mucosa was analyzed. Samples assessed were: duodenal ulcer (n=6), Crohn’s disease (n=5), low-grade small-intestinal adenoma (n=10), high-grade small-intestinal adenoma (n=13), small-intestinal adenocarcinoma (n=23), lymph node metastases (LNM; n=7), and preoperative biopsies of small-intestinal adenocarcinoma (n=6). Immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 and p53 was also analyzed in adenoma and adenocarcinoma samples. IMP3 was not expressed in normal epithelium, but weakly expressed in reparative epithelium. Meanwhile, increased IMP3 expression was associated with a higher degree of dysplasia in adenomas, higher T classification, LNM, Ki-67 positivity, histological differentiation, and lower 5-year disease-free survival, but not p53 expression in adenocarcinoma. IMP3 expression appears to be a late event in the small-intestinal carcinogenesis. Assessing the IMP3 staining pattern can be useful in the diagnosis of small-intestinal epithelial lesions when used in conjunction with other histological criteria.
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the host retinal microenvironment on cell migration and differentiation using Neuro2a (N2a) cells transduced with green fluorescent protein. N2a cells were transplanted into the vitreous cavities of developing mouse eyes (C57BL/6) on postnatal days 1, 5, and 10 (P1, 5, and 10). To analyze the effects of the host microenvironment on neural differentiation of N2a cells in vitro, cells were treated with a conditioned medium (CM) collected from retinal cells cultured at each developmental stage. We observed that numerous cells transplanted into P5 mice eyes migrated into all layers of the host retina, and the presence of processes indicated morphological differentiation. Some transplanted N2a cells expressed several neural markers. However, cells transplanted into the P1 and 10 mice eyes only proliferated within the vitreous cavity. Neurite length increased in N2a cells treated with CM collected from the cultured retinal cells from P5 and 10 mice, while western blotting revealed that the levels of proteins related to neural differentiation were not significantly altered in N2a cells treated with CM. We show that the migration and differentiation capacities of transplanted cells were differentially influenced by the microenvironment of the retinal postnatal ontogeny.