In the present study, we investigated the distribution of CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells and neurons in mouse alimentary tract by immunohistochemistry. CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells were found as closed-type cells in the stomach and open-type cells in the small intestine. The immunostaining of these endocrine cells corresponded with that of the somatostatin-containing endocrine cells. Only a few CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells were seen in the large intestine. CXCL14 immunoreactive fibers were observed in the muscular layer from the stomach to the rectum with most abundance in the rectum. Many CXCL14 immunoreactive fibers were observed in the lamina propria and submucosal layer from the duodenum to the rectum with most abundance in the rectum; these fibers corresponded to the somatostatin-containing nerve fibers. Some CXCL14 immunoreactive neuronal somata that were also immuno-positive for somatostatin, were noted in the submucosal layer of the rectum. However, the remaining parts of the alimentary tract presented with almost negligible immunoreactive somata. The co-localization of CXCL14 and somatostatin suggests that CXCL14 contributes to the function of somatostatin, which include the inhibition of other endocrine and exocrine cells and the enteric nervous systems.
Intestinal goblet cells are characterized by their unique morphology and specialized function to secrete mucins. Although it is known that they are a heterogeneous population of cells, there have been few studies that relate the expression of a particular gene with functionally distinct subpopulations of intestinal goblet cells. Here we show that CCN3, a gene encoding a member of the CCN family proteins, is induced by inhibition of Notch signaling in colonic epithelial cells and expressed in goblet cells in mice. We demonstrate that CCN3 expression is confined to a subpopulation of goblet cells in the lower crypt of the proximal and middle colon. In addition, CCN3+ cells in the colon correlate well with the cells that are positive for alcian blue (AB) staining but negative for high-iron diamine (HID) staining in histology. We also show that CCN3+ cells, which are absent in the normal distal colon, transiently and ectopically emerge in regenerating crypts during the repair phase of DSS-induced colitis model. Our study thus suggests that CCN3 labels a unique subpopulation of sulfomucin-nonproducing colonic goblet cells that function in both normal and diseased colonic epithelia.
Identification of fusion genes in cancer is essential for pathological diagnosis and clinical therapy. Although methods for detection of fusion genes, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been developed in last two decades, these methods are not ideal for detection of these genetic alterations owing to their high cost and time-consuming procedures. In this study, we developed novel application for detection of gene translocations using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). We verified the amplified DNA products of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK), synaptotagmin and synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint (SYT-SSX), and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (IgH/BCL2) by real-time PCR, agarose-gel electrophoresis, and the naked eye after the LAMP procedure. Fusion genes were detected in samples diluted 103 times within 60 min. Because of the advantages of rapid amplification, simple operation, and easy detection without requiring sophisticated equipment or technical skill, LAMP may have potential applications as an on-site analytical approach in hospitals for pathological diagnosis and decision making regarding appropriate therapeutic approachs.
There are many commercial antibodies with little information provided by their suppliers as to their reliability. Accordingly, commercial antibodies require proper validation before being used in scientific research. In this study, we validated several commercial antibodies, including anti-CSPα, SNAP25, tyrosine hydroxylase, ubiquitin, cleaved caspase 3, and pSer PKC motif. Anti-CSPα, SNAP25, and tyrosine hydroxylase antibodies could detect their endogenous target proteins with some degree of cross-reactivity. Furthermore, clear SNAP25 staining was observed with SNAP25 antibody. Antibodies directed against ubiquitin, cleaved caspase 3, and pSer PKC motif could detect poly-ubiquitination, apoptosis, and phosphorylation, respectively.