Skin is a target for hormones and a site of hormone production. Aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole reduce circulating estrogen. The aim of the study was to investigate the morphology of the dermis and immunoexpression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α and β (ERα, ERβ), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) in male rats with a deficit of estradiol. Experiments were performed on skin of 12 male rats. Rats in the experimental group received per os letrozole for 6 months. For morphological analysis, van Gieson, Sirius Red and orcein staining of sections was performed. In immunohistochemistry, reactions with specific antibodies (anti-P450arom, LHR, FSHR, ERα, ERβ) were used. In morphometric analysis, sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Differences between groups were assessed by Mann-Whitney U-test. There were no differences in the diameter of collagen fibers. The dermis of letrozole-treated animals showed areas without collagen fibers, and expression of P450arom, ERα and ERβ was diminished in the skin of these animals. This study indicates that estrogens exert an effect via ERs that has a role in maintaining proper skin morphology in males, together with androgen. This is also the first documented expression of FSHR in the skin of male rats.
Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality. The diagnosis and treatment of early GC is a crucial strategy for prognostic improvement of GC. Annexin A10 (ANXA10), a calcium-/phospholipid-binding protein, is a member of the annexin family. The significance of ANXA10 expression in early GC remains unclear. This is the first report to investigate ANXA10 expression in early GC. We performed immunohistochemistry to evaluate ANXA10 expression in early GC, and the correlation between ANXA10 and clinicopathological factors. The loss of ANXA10 expression was detected in 63 (61.2%) of 103 early GC cases and significantly correlated with poor overall survival in patients. Sex, pT stage, pN stage, histology, and ANXA10 expression were associated with poor survival. Sex, histology, and ANXA10 expression were determined as independent predictors of survival in early GC patients. ANXA10 immunostaining could be a new decision-making biomarker in GC.
Recent studies have proposed that the chemokine CXCL14 not only has a chemotactic activity, but also functions as a neuromodulator and/or neurotransmitter. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CXCL14 immunoreactive structures in the rat spinal cord and clarified the association of these structures with somatostatin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; a marker for GABAergic neurons), and neuropeptide Y (NPY). CXCL14 immunoreactive fibers and puncta were observed in lamina II, which modulates somatosensation including nociception, and the lateral spinal nucleus of the spinal dorsal horn at cervical, thoracic, and lumber spinal cord levels. These CXCL14 immunoreactive structures were also immuno-positive for somatostatin, but were immuno-negative for GAD and NPY. In the cervical lateral spinal nucleus, CXCL14 immunoreactive puncta, which were also immuno-positive for somatostatin, existed along the proximal dendrites of some of GABAergic neurons. Together, these results suggest that CXCL14 contributes to the modulation of somatosensation in concert with somatostatin. Neurons targeted by the CXCL14 fiber system include GABAergic neurons located in the lateral spinal nucleus suggesting that CXCL14 with somatostatin can influence the GABAergic neuron function.