The combined thermal effects of convection, radiation and conduction in a vehicle compartment need special measuring equipment accounting for spatial and temporal variations in the driver space. The most sophisticated equipment measures local heat fluxes at defined spots or areas of a man-shaped manikin. Manikin segment heat fluxes have been measured in a variety of vehicle climatic conditions (heat, cold, solar radiation etc.) and compared with thermal sensation votes and physiological responses of subjects exposed to the same conditions. High correlation was found for segment fluxes and mean thermal vote (MTV) of subjects for the same body segments. By calibrating the manikin under homogenous, wind still conditions, heat fluxes could be converted (and normalised) to an equivalent homogenous temperature (EHT). Regression of MTV-values on EHT-values was used as basis for the derivation of a comfort profile, specifying acceptable temperature ranges for 19 different body segments. The method has been used for assessment of the thermal climate in trucks and crane cabins in winter and summer conditions. The possibility for spatial resolution of thermal influences (e.g. by solar radiation or convection currents) appeared to be very useful in the analysis of system performance. Ventilation of driver's seats is a technical solution to reducing insulation of thigh, seat and back areas of the body. Constructions, however, may vary in efficiency. In one system seat ventilation allowed for almost 2 'C higher ambient conditions for unchanged general thermal sensation, in addition to the pronounced local effect. In a recent study the effects of various technical.measures related to cabin design and HVAC-systems have been investigated. Quantitative data on the effects of for example heated windows, heated floor, air outlet positions and solar screens have been obtained.
The relationship between physical fitness and cardiopulmonary (CP) baroreflex induced by the decrease in venous return was investigated. Maximal oxygen uptake / Iean body mass (V02max/LBM) was used as a measure of physical fitness. CP baroreflex was examined in 8 subjects [22.0±2.0(SD)yr] ranging from low (47.3 ml ?? g-1·min-1) to highly (72.6 ml·kg-1·min-1) fit subjects who were exposed to the orthostatic load using passive head-up tilt. Tilting from O°to 70°in lO°increments was applied. Each tilting was preceded by measurements at the basal position of O°.Heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure, stroke volume, and forearm blood flow were measured before and during tilting; Cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) were calculated. FVR was increased with the raising in tilt angle in each subject, but the onset of increase in FVR tended to be earlier in proportion to the higher level of physical fitness. There is a negative and significant correlation between the onset of increase in FVR and V02max/LBM. The physically fit subject exhibited a more rapid onset of an increase in FVR to orthostatic stress than the unfit subject. Thus the higher the physical fitness, the lower the threshold in CP baroreflex response.
Alterations in cardiac function during pro-10nged submaximal exercise relative to lactate threshold (LT) were evaluated on 7 normal healthy males aged 30.3±5.7 years. Systolic time intervals were analyzed through simultaneous recordings of electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, and impedance cardiogram at a paper speed of 50 mm/s. Determination of stroke volume (SV) was based upon the method described by Kubicek et al. ANOVA followed by the Scheffe post-hoc comparison revealed that SV and myocardial contractility indices (MSER and PEP/LVET) remained relatively unchanged throughout 40-min cycling exercise, although the changes in heart rate and oxygen uptake were statistically significant. In addition, systolic blood pressure remained almost unchanged during the exercise. These results may be interpreted as evidence of the "contractility reserve", i.e., the ability of maintaining heart muscle contractility during prolonged exercise at LT intensity.
We studied 94 (41 men and 53 women) healthy 18 to 65 years old Caucasians for body composition utilizing 3 methods: 1) Underwater weighing (UWW) for body density, 2) A-mode ultrasound subcutaneous fat determination, and 3) Near-infrared (NIR) interactance spectral data. We then utilized the Wherry-Doolittle test selection method to predict percent of total body fat (% fat) from either ultrasound or NIR data with anthropometric measurements, optimizing for the fewest number of data points which correlated highly with UWW results. It was found that %fat could be esti-mated with a correlation of 0.9 when measured at 4 sites (diffcrent between men and women) by ultrasound, age (women) and height (men). We also found a correlation of 0.8 using 2 sites by NIR, weight, age, and height. It has been suggested that the ultrasound method would produce better estimates of both local and total body fat.
For the purpose of studying the sex differences of the human face we collected five separate images, which consist of several parts of the face, from frontal view photographs of 48 male and 52 female college students. We traced outlines of their faces with simple lines (traced items), and made reproductions of the photographs of their eyes, mouth and nose by using a copying machine (reproduced items). The test subjects were 16 males and 8 females. They looked at parts of the face shown in each image, and categorized them individually by judging on their sex. Then, we calculated the percentages of correct judgments (percentage correct) for each image. By comparing the percentage correct between male and female we concluded that the sex of the subjects did not affect the results of their judgments. In the traced items the percentage correct for the face as a whole, which contained the outlines of the eyes, mouth, nose and the lower jaw, was 69% but it decreased to 61% when the outline of the lower jaw was removed. Hence, the outline of the lower jaw appar-ently has a characteristic shape easily noticed by males. In the reproduced items the percentage correct was 65% for the eyes, 68% for the mouth and 58% for the nose. The mouth, therefore, has more distinguishing characteristics than the eyes or nose, especially with females. On the other hand, there is no correlation between the percentage correct for the eye, mouth and nose items. Hence, we concluded that the sexual specificity for the shape of the young Japanese face appears on their parts independently.
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