From the chapters described so far, it is apparent that human beings may suffer many kinds of physiological declines during aging process. However, nutritional problems due to the physiological declines could be resolved by establishment of good eating patterns, intake of nutritionally balanced diet, appropriate nutrient supplementation of vitamins as well as minerals, and good nutrition program coupled with a regular exercise as mentioned in each chapters. Here is a Short Summary from the nutritional point of view for a longer, healthier, and more vital life. The balanced diet; especially the diet enhanced by vitamins E and B6 and trace mineral zinc is helpful for the elderly to prevent the declines in the immune system. The foods rich in vitamin D and calcium; they may help to prevent the elderly from osteoporosis. The foods with low fat, dietary cholesterol and sodium; these foods may be recommended for not only the elderly but also younger people to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The good quality of diet; it is important for the elderly to avoid the monotonous diet because of their appetite declines.
We studied the circulatory regulation during intermittent isometric handgrip (IIHG, six seconds contraction + six seconds relaxation) in supine and sitting postures in a hot environment (40°C, RH: 50%). Eight healthy male subjects performed thrice 5-minute period IIHG at three different work loads (10%, 20% and 30% MVC). The IIHG was performed with the right hand in the two postures. Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), mean arterial blood pressure (MBP), forearm blood flow (FBF), skin blood flow (SBF), foot swelling (FSW) and tympanic temperature (Tty) were measured during IIHG, resting and recovery periods. During IIHG in a hot environment, HR, MBP, FSW and Tty showed higher values in the sitting than in the supine posture. FBF during relaxation showed higher values at high work 10ad than at low work load in the two postures. FBF showed higher values in the sitting than in the supine posture, except during relaxation at 30% MVC. It was concluded that the decrements of blood volume of splanchnic organs might be greater in the sitting than in the supine posture due to sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, and were responsible for the redistribution of blood flow. Posture had an effect on FBF because of hydrostatic pressure.
The evaluation of vibration sensation is a problem which has large individual differences. In order to clarify the relationship between posture and psychological response, human sensation to whole-body vibration (from 2 to 11Hz) in sitting and lying postures was evaluated by the semantic differential method, and the influences of posture on the evaluation were investigated by using the fuzzy measure. Furthermore, the paired t-test was used to test the significant differences in the results of evaluation between the two postures. The results were as follows: (1) Psychological responses of human beings to whole-body vibration were greatly affected by the postures. (2) Changes of the psychological responses in the lying posture were smaller than those in the sitting posture. (3) There were significant differences between sitting and lying postures in the evaluation results of physiological factor, psychological factor and synthetic evaluation (P0.025).
The purpose of this study was to clarify characteristics of age-related changes in body shape in adolescence, in 11- to 19-year-old boys and girls, by using previously reported physique models of adult men and women as the scale. The scale consisted of four factors obtained by factor analysis using 30 items as variables, such as the values measured for the physique, skinfold thickness and body composition. The four factors were Factor 1: body fat, Factor 2: mass, Factor 3: Ieg length to height ratio, and Factor 4: Iength, and were interpreted in the men and women in a similar manner. The subjects were 307 boys and 368 girls; all were healthy. Thirty items were measured and included the values measured for the physique, skinfold thickness and body composition, as in the men and women. Factor scores in the subjects were standardized by mean and standard deviation for each item in the adult subjects, and calculated for individuals by using the coefficient of factor score in the adult subjects. The body shapes of the boys and girls were investigated from the factor score by age calculated for each factor. The following results were obtained: 1. Factor 1 tended to gradually decrease and reached the adult level at 15 years of age in the boys. But it tended to gradually increase and reached the adult level at 15 years of age in the girls; 2. Factor 2 rapidly increased with age in the first half of the teen years in the boys and girls, and it reached the adult level at 18 years of age in the girls, whereas this factor did not reach the adult level even at 19 years of age in the boys; 3. with regard to Factor 3, Ieg length tended to be temporarily somewhat long at 13-15 years of age in the boys, whereas the girls showed changes at approximate-ly the level of the adult subjects; 4. Factor 4 rapidly increased with age in the first half of the teen years in the boys and girls, and reached approximately the adult level at 17 and 15 years of age in the boys and girls, respectively. These results suggest that, the physique in adolescence is almost equivalent to that of adults and that body shape is essentially fully formed in the early 20s in boys and by about 18 years in girls through rapid growth in both mass and length during the first half of the teen years.
The purpose of this study was to investigate physiological and subjective responses during and after bathing in three different bathing methods. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 minutes, and then rested for 30 minutes. Three kinds of bathing methods - standing shower, sitting shower and sink bath - were adopted in this experiment. Water temperature and flow volume of the showers were kept at 41°C and 11 Iiter/min, while water temperature of the bath was kept at 40°C . Rectal temperature, skin temperatures and heart rate of the subjects were measured continuously during bathing and the subsequent 30-minute rest. Blood pressure and votes for thermal sensations were recorded before bathing, after 5 and 10 minutes of bathing, and 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after bathing. The following results were obtained. 1) Although rectal temperature rose, on the average, by 0.15°C in all bathing methods, there were no significant differences among the three bathing methods at any time in the experiment. 2) Mean skin temperature (Tsk) during the sink bath was significantly higher than that in the standing or sitting shower. After bathing, Tsk of sink bath was slightly higher than those of the remaining conditions, but did not significantly differ among the bathing methods. 3) Heart rate increased gradually during all the bathing methods, however, only HR in the standing shower exceeded 100 beats/min which was significantly higher than those of the two remaining bathing methods. 4) Blood pressure (BP) decreased rapidly during the sink bath in contrast to an increased BP in the sitting and standing showers. 5) Five minutes after the bathing period, thermal sensation (TS) in the sink bath was significantly warmer than those in the showers, but did not differ significantly among the bathing methods at any other time in the experiment.
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