Applied Human Science
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Volume 16 , Issue 4
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REVIEW
  • Mi Sook Lee, Kiyoji Tanaka
    Volume 16 (1997) Issue 4 Pages 123-131
    Released: September 28, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    There is no doubt that the older population in Japan is rapidly increasing. The over-65 age group is the fastest growing age group in Japanese society. The quality of life for this rapidly growing segment of the population can no longer be ignored without disastrous consequences. The advent of an increased life expectancy has focused attention on the issue of functionality versus disability. We are all faced with the inevitable consequences of aging, yet each of us has the capacity to modify the aging process physiologically through appropriate physical activity and other preventive health measures. Therefore, with the aid of a physically healthy lifestyle, an exercise participant can be physically capable, energetic, and live actively beyond the ages of 50, 60, or even 70 years. Consequently, a key issue for successful or healthy aging would appear to be the improvement in perception of physical ability through education, as well as improvement in health-related physical fitness through a change in lifestyle involving regular exercise. In addition, it is a major responsibility of the physical education profession and related health fields to clarify and publicize the benefits, risks, and specific parameters of physical activity, and to develop an effective prescription for physical activity in programs that are age adjusted. This review discusses from this perspective the significance of health fitness appraisal in the aged society. Much more research is needed to clarify these issues in Japanese society.
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ORIGINALS
  • Arlette C. Perry, Lisa M. Tremblay, Joseph F. Signorile, Ted A. Kaplan ...
    Volume 16 (1997) Issue 4 Pages 133-141
    Released: September 28, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness variables and nutrient intake to coronary risk factors (CRF) in a sample of children living in the Southeastern U.S. A total of 22 sixth-grade children of whom 10 were boys (mean age = 11.83 ± 0.3) and 12 were girls (mean age 11.7 ± 0.3) volunteered for this study. Results indicated that boys in comparison to girls weighed more (54.0 ± 10.8 kg versus 42.1 ± 8.0 kg; p<0.05), had a higher body mass index (BMI) (23.6 ± 2.7versus 20.2 ± 3.3; p<0.05), a higher lean body mass (37.8 ± 6.0 kg versus 30.7 ± 3.8 kg; p<0.01), and a higher systolic blood pressure (115.7 ± 11.1 versus 106.4 ± 8.1; p<.0001). There were, however, no significant gender differences in serum lipoproteins or nutrient intake. Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that physical fitness variables which included VO2max, one-mile run for time, grip strength, and leg strength could significantly predict resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (F=3.06; p<0.05) and percent body fat (F=4.98; p<0.01) in children. Analysis of food intake revealed that total and saturated fat, and carbohydrate intake could predict serum triglycerides (TG) (F=5.18; p=0.01) while total kilocalorie, fat, and carbohydrate intake could significantly predict percent body fat (F=3.42; p<0.03). These findings may be clinically relevant since both serum triglyceride levels and percent body fat were well above the 50th percentile according to U.S. norms. In summary, the present study showed that measurements of muscular strength in addition to aerobic fitness are associated with DBP and percent body fat in children. Furthermore, it is recommended that nutrient intake be used when evaluating CRF in children due to its ability to predict TG and percent body fat.
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  • Hidehito Aoki
    Volume 16 (1997) Issue 4 Pages 143-148
    Released: September 28, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Based on the hypothesis that bone calcification is promoted by loading phusical pressure, changes in the microstructure of the bone under hypervaric conditions were analyzed by imaging technology. Hyperbaric exposure was carried out for two weeks at 2 atm (equal to the pressure at a depth of water of 10 m) which was achieved using a mixed gas of helium and oxygen (He:O2 88%:12%) in which the oxygen partial pressure was maintained at constant (PO2: 0.21 bar). In image technological analysis, the growth and development of the bone were evaluated at. different stages using Digital Magnification Radiography (DMR) images and based on changes in the X-ray absorption ratio. DMR images after hyperbaric exposure showed calcification in the heads of long bones (humeri, femora, and tibiae) in mice. There were also significant changes in the X-ray absorption ratio in the heads. The accumulation of 99mTc-MDP was higher in all long-bone heads after hyperbaric exposure than before exposure. These results suggest that the hyperbaric environment promotes bone calcification.
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  • Sook Hee Kim, Hiromi Tokura
    Volume 16 (1997) Issue 4 Pages 149-151
    Released: September 28, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study is to know the effects of the menstrual cycle on cloth color preference in 10 normal menstruating subjects. They were instructed to choose a single one out of 41 cloth colors (24 × 52 cm), preferred by themselves, every five minutes from 06:30 h to 08:00 h under the ambient temperature (Ta) of 28°C. A warmer cloth color was preferred in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase. The findings that the warmer cloth color preference occurred in the luteal phase could probably be interpreted in terms of an establishment of a higher setpoint for core temperature.
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  • Shintaro Yokoyama, Naoto Kakuta, Kiyoshi Ochifuji
    Volume 16 (1997) Issue 4 Pages 153-159
    Released: September 28, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A computer program has been developed for the numerical analysis of thermal conditions within the human body. In this study, a cylindrical model, which consists of internal multi-layers, is adapted for the segment of the human body. For the present concentric cylindrical model we developed a new numerical solution method using a linear combination of the modified Bessel functions. By using the present computer program the internal tissue temperatures, heat fluxes and blood temperatures of the thigh, crus and foot segments are calculated. This paper describes a new algorithm solving heat transfer equation in the human body and the example of calculated results of the combination of thigh, crus and foot segments. The calculated results show the local characteristics of each segment in the human body.
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  • Kazue Okamoto, Kou Mizuno, Nobuyuki Okudaira
    Volume 16 (1997) Issue 4 Pages 161-166
    Released: September 28, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In our previous study, an air mattress with three series of air cells with inflation pressure, that was increased/decreased in time interval of 20 min, did not affect sleep quality and quantity, although the relative and absolute humidity inside the bedding was kept significantly higher than that of a Futon. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of a newly designed air mattress upon sleep and bed climate. In this newly designed air mattress, the cell series and time interval was reduced. Six healthy female volunteers, aged 18-22, served as subjects. The experiment was carried out under two conditions: using a regular Futon (Futon), and a newly-designed air mattress with the timer and pump activated (Airmat). The room temperature and relative humidity were controlled at 22-23°C and RH 50-60%, respectively. The subjects' sleep was monitored by using an EEG machine and their skin temperatures and bed climates were also measured continuously. Subjective evaluations of bed comfort and sleep were obtained before and after the recording sessions. Sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset and the sleep efficiency index showed no significant differences between the two conditions. A significant difference was observed in the bed climate of the waist area. The temperature of the waist was lower overall under the Airmat than the Futon, while relative humidity was higher under the Airmat. Absolute humidity also tended to be higher in the Airmat. Sleep evaluation and comfort sensation were good under both conditions. Although sleep was not disturbed and subjective sleep evaluation tended to be better in Airmat, our results indicate that changing the time intervals and cell series until this air mattress level is not effective in decreasing the bed climate humidity.
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  • Motoko Murakami, Seiichi Arai, Yumiko Nagai, Kazuhiko Yamazaki, Sachik ...
    Volume 16 (1997) Issue 4 Pages 167-177
    Released: September 28, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Subcutaneous fat is an essential element in shaping the body of human beings. In this research, skinfold thickness was measured specifically in 33 regions of the human body, including the abdomen and buttocks. Based on our measurements, the subcutaneous fat distribution was assessed for several age groups. The subjects were healthy Japanese women aged 20 to 58 years. Skinfold thickness was measured using the B-mode ultrasound methods, together with anthropometric measurement. A comparison was made between the following five age groups: early 20's, late 20's, 30's, 40's and 50's. The measured values for the early 20's group were used as the standard and the relationship between increase ratio of subcutaneous fat and age was studied. Through our research, we obtained data on the subcutaneous fat distribution in each age group. The largest change was observed between the ages of the early 20's and late 20's. The skinfold thickness measurements of the abdomen and buttocks was consistently around 10 mm for the early 20's, and increased up to 23.8 mm on the rear side section for the late 20's. This result indicates that the increase ratio varied depending on the part of body. Furthermore, the changes in skinfold thickness were different in specific parts of the abdomen and buttocks among different age groups. The difference in skinfold thickness between upper and lower sections of the abdomen also becomes more pronounced with age. Skinfold thickness increased significantly between the early 20's and late 20's. Among the body regions, measurements at the rear side showed the largest change with age; averaging 11.3 mm for the early 20's compared to 33.6 mm for the 50's. The subcutaneous fat distribution on the buttock also showed the differences with age, indicating changes in body shape. Using careful measurements of the abdomen and buttocks, subcutaneous fat distribution among each age group was determined as well as the variation in changes with the aging process.
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