Considering the relationship between the environmental load and the environmental quality is very important in design of the ecological housing. Moreover, the importance of study from the viewpoint of lifecycle is increasing. This study aims to clarify relations between LCCO2 and thermal environment in passive solar house with thermal mass.
Firstly, the settings for the model of living room with various combinations of window and thermal mass are assumed. The models are mainly based on wooden structure with the wide frontage facing south to gain solar heat. The supposed site is in suburb area of Tokyo, Japan. Three variations of the south window are set by size and position of opening and depth of eaves. Besides, four compositional variations of thermal mass to store solar heat are set by position and amount of reinforced concrete element. Consequently, the twelve models are set for following investigations. Secondly, the amount of embodied CO2 for each model is calculated by LCA tool offered by the Architectural Institute of Japan. Thirdly, the amount of operating CO2 emitted from the air-conditioning load is calculated by the Solar Designer which is a thermal environment simulation tool. Furthermore, the qualities of thermal environment focusing on the change of room temperature on sunny day in winter and summer are investigated by considering the Degree・Hour (D・H) which integrates the fluctuation of room temperature. Finally, the amount of LCCO2 is calculated by combining the embodied and operating CO2, and then, the relationships between LCCO2 and thermal environment quality by D・H are clarified.
1) The model AS which has the smallest thermal mass and window indicates the smallest embodied CO2. On the other hand, the model CL which has the second largest thermal mass and the largest window shows the largest embodied CO2. These are regarded by differences for the repairing cycle of element.
2) The models of A, B and C which have larger thermal mass tend to indicate smaller operating CO2 according to reduction of window size. However, only the model D with the largest thermal mass shows a different tendency that indicates smallest operating CO2 in the case with medium window size.
3) The room temperature’s change tends to become smaller along with increase of thermal mass. However, the model DS which has largest thermal mass and smallest window shows minimum D・H in winter which is a stable environment in low temperature.
4) For the relations between LCCO2 and thermal environment, the models AS, BM, CM and DL which have different combinations of thermal mass and window size indicate smaller LCCO2 with an appropriate D・H combination in winter and summer. Especially, the model AS and DL have contrastive difference for the passive design strategy regarding with the less or more thermal mass and the smaller or larger window for solar gain, in addition to their differences for the combination of embodied CO2 and operating CO2. This result means a “trade-off” relations between LCCO2 and thermal environment and shows alternatives for design regarding the balance of thermal mass and window with proper combination of environmental load and quality.
With aging society of china, number of “empty nesters elderly” in rural areas is increasing rapidly, and the growth rate of aging in rural areas is much higher than that in urban areas. It is estimated that the aging rate in rural areas of Shanxi Province will reach 35.94％ by 2030. It will be twice than city18.64％. This paper is based on the previous paper, compared with the urban center investigated rural areas in Xi’an and Shanxi of China by field studies. It is to clarify and evaluate living environment, especially space formation of dwelling for elderly people in Lan Tian Prefecture of Xi’an(4 village (community)).
The major points this paper clarifies are as follows.
1. In village, such as foods, medical treatment, and shopping facilities are not available. This tendency is remarkable in mountainous areas particularly. Residents' committees, clinics, home care centers for the elderly, “rural happiness home”, open spaces, health appliances, etc. are set up in each village or communities. However, it can be seen that the bias location, and hardly used as it is located distance. In addition, elderly people living in mountainous and hilly areas with low independence are difficult to use.
2. The first problem of the elderly is physical health care, and nearly 80% of the elderly suffer from chronic illness. Subsequently, economic and living environment problems are great, but the economic problem is that the income in rural areas is extremely low even with the addition of welfare subsidies. Three times the difference in income between the community and the countryside. As for the living problems, the lack of heating, toilets and bathrooms and the aging of the facilities are major. It was also found that about one-third of the fourth life supporters were worried.
3. Such as lack of heating, toilets, and bathrooms etc. are basic problems, it was found that the distinctive type of housing in this area is a problem for the elderly. In “Separate type”, “Attached type”, it is needed to go outside once when to go to other rooms such as a kitchen, and washing room etc. because it is separated from the main house. There are many inconvenient in the house such as moving line for the elderly. For this reason, some cases where kitchens are set up in living room or bedroom. This is a characteristic of rural areas that is not seen in the central area of the previous article. There are also problems such as the inconvenience of heating and cooking in a traditional stove, steps between indoors and outdoors, or rooms, and stairs. Although the above problems are not felt inconvenient under healthy situations, but it has been found that troubles and inconvenience will increase especially for elderly people who are empty-nested or those who are independence II and III.
Above all, it is clear that different problems in the living environment of the elderly in countryside of Xi'an. It is a future task to clarify the actual conditions of the living environment, administrative services and facilities for the elderly.
In Japan, due to changes in family structures such as the rising number of dual-income households, the need to provide places for children has become urgent. It has also been pointed out that the weakening of relationships within local communities has kept child-rearing families in isolation. The support by society of child-rearing is therefore a problem to be addressed. It can be said that the “children’s center” has great potential as a local facility intended not only for children, but also open to generations centering around children.
However, studies on the architectural planning of children’s centers to date have not yielded comprehensive, fruitful results based on behavioral analysis of children’s free play and parent and children play. These are the types of play assumed to be the most basic activities in small and medium-sized children’s centers, which are the most common such facilities.
This study aims to clarify behavioral characteristics specific to children’s centers through research of environment behavior, and to gather knowledge that will contribute to the architectural planning of children’s centers in the future. As to its methodology, the study was conducted in three steps, as follows.
1. (Chapter 2) In prefecture X, based on information provided by municipalities, the status of availability and usage of children’s centers was established. From among the facilities found, the facilities to be investigated in the subsequent chapters were selected.
2. (Chapter 3) By executing research based on behavioral observation, the actual usage of children’s centers was identified, to clarify the usage characteristics.
3. (Chapter 4) Interrelationships were identified between actual usage and the characteristics of activities, and the facilities’ environments such as their spatial characteristics, locations, and management conditions, in order to consider spatial planning appropriate to behaviors.
The major results obtained in this study are as follows. The number of users per unit area used as a guide was about 37 persons/m2. The duration of play was about five minutes; the place or type of play changed within short intervals of time. Activity groups were small, with the number of children participating in one activity being 1.9 on average, and the activity area being 2 m2 or less. The free play activities could be roughly divided into three categories: “Active play,” “Play while sitting on the floor,” and “Activity by settling oneself, such as learning.” A mixture of these three activities limited the use of children’s centers by small children. By providing a variety of spaces where a wide range of activities could be performed, the number of users other than children increased.
Covering at the middle scale day care facility for the elderly placed to special elderly nursing home that is expected to increase the role of fundamental facilities of large area, this paper aims at regulating the plan and corner arrangement pattern of main rooms, and explaining the feature of relation between room composition and usage. The room usage and construction method required of the main rooms of middle scale day care facilities are considered based on the acquired knowledge.
The results are as follows.
1) Because table and chair are arranged in the center of the main room and free time, meal, and functional training are held in the same room in FTL+N type and FTL type corner arrangement cases, there are few selection options of user's sitting space. Since the functional training is held by putting away the table and chair and securing the large space, the clearing up and preparation of tea, etc. may be repeated so the cause of staff's work load and user's waiting time is the problem. The furniture for nap is not placed in FTL type, so the generous arrangement of table and chair, arrangement of sofa set or office corner etc. are available.
2) FL+FTN type corner arrangement cases divide the main rooms into two areas, and secure the place of meal and functional training in the constraints that the main room floor spaces are 74-109 square meters . By arranging sofas to the enclosure type and securing the space in the center of corner, users sit down on the sofa and meets at the time of functional training, and can hold gymnastics, game etc. in the FTN corner. At the time of a nap, it is also available to put down bedclothes on the floor of central part in addition to sofa, and to increase the number taking a nap. But there is a problem for keeping the quiet environmental at the time of functional training . Also in the facility with main room floor spaces of around 100square meters, FL+FTN type corner arrangement type is situated as the case that 2 area classification is materialized.
3) By the FL+FT+N type corner arrangement that divides the place of a meal and functional training into two areas, and also secures nap space in the main room independently, There can be many selection options of user's sitting space, in addition to the table and chair corner for meal, users can spend freely by sitting on the sofa or massage chair of relaxation corner. There are some scenes that staffs do preceded type preparation settlement work so the functional training corner serves as the place of waiting at lunch preparation time, staffs put away the table of functional training corner and prepare the recreation at the time of the snack in meal corner. According to the spatial and temporal separation of the staff work, the smooth management of the execution of daily program is attained with little waiting time. In this way, the point that the usage harnessed the feature of 2 area composition of the main rooms has realized is evaluated.
In Japanese universities, the realization of a new type of group learning environment, based on the use of analogic and digital media, has been promoted: Learning Commons (hereinafter, "LC").
Recently, examples of LC built separately from university library have increased. In the previous report, we conducted surveys in libraries where the reading area and the LCs are integrated, aiming to clarify the seat choice behavior of individual and group users. However, it was still to define if all the users actually choose only one of those two types, or if some of them rather choose both types.
For this reason, we tried to clarify the differentiated use behavior of reading areaff and LCs, aiming to acquire a useful knowledge for future learning space planning.
2. Research method
We conducted a questionnaire survey and a behavior observation survey regarding the use status (addressed to users), and a questionnaire survey regarding the facility conditions (addressed to library staff).
The surveys were conducted in four Japanese universities: Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Ritsumeikan University, Chubu University, and Kyoto Sangyo University, which have different LC installation types. All of those institutions have more than 6,000 students and multiple departments. The different LC installation types have been identified as “integrated open type” (Sugiyama Jogakuen Univ.), “integrated separate type” (Ritsumeikan Univ.), “distributed combined type” (Chubu Univ.), “distributed independent type” (Kyoto Sangyo Univ.).
We noted that, as for the actual conditions, LC facilities have been built outside the library building in those universities where the number of students is larger.
Our hypothesis was that most of the single users tend to chose reading areas, and that most of the group users tend to chose LC; however, the results showed that around the 50% of the plural places users tend to choose both facilities, regardless of single or group use.
The analysis of this portion of users’ behavior made clear that, between the reasons of their place choice, there are the possibility of using learning tools as PCs and copy machines, and the factor of nearness (LC facilities situated near the faculty building were largely used).
In the “distributed type”, a large number of users chose both reading areas and LC because of the quiet environment. From this, it can be thought that by separating LC from the library building, it becomes possible to create various acoustic environments inside the vast surface obtained. Also in the “integrated open type”, where there are no partitions between reading areas and LC, and where, within the same floor, there is a differentiation of quiet and lively spaces, many users’ purpose was “to find a quiet environment”. This behavior could only mean that the concept of “quietness” is not only linked to the absence of sound.
From those considerations, it seems necessary to provide a differentiation in the sound environment of the learning spaces. Even by planning spaces where there is a sort of “noisy” acoustic condition, it becomes possible to increase the place choice factors of the users.
Kenji Hirose, who designed The “SH series” prefab houses, developed a three hinged ramen structure system named “Type 33” in SH-30 in 1960. That was the representative system of the series and aimed to eliminate structural braces that existed in previous works and to promote further industrialization, and over 20 houses were built by the system. However, there were some other systems that also eliminated structural braces before and after “Type 33”. This study analyzed these systems systematically in chronological order and re-evaluate them by deciphering existing old documents.
As a result, the following points were pointed out in this study.
1) At first, a ramen frame structure system with fixed column bases and pin-jointed beams was tried so as to eliminate structural braces. But it was very difficult to fix these bases on site with high accuracy because it depended on the construction accuracy of concrete pouring.
2) At second, “type33” ie a unique 3 hinged ramen frame structure system was developed. It was very flexible in planning and over 20 houses were built by the system. However, it was unavoidable that many pin-jointed columns stood in the house.
3) At third, “type43” ie another type of 3 hinged ramen frame structure system was developed. Compared with “type 33”, manufacturability and transportation efficiency of main structural components were improved and very few columns stood in the house. But it was unavoidable to use “square division” room planning way.
4) At fourth, “type52” ie yet another new type of 3 hinged ramen frame structure system was developed. It eliminated any columns in the house, but main structural components were bigger than “type 33” and “type 43” and thus manufacturability and transportation efficiency was deteriorated again.
As above, various prototypes of ramen frame structure system was developed by Kenji Hirose in the SH series, however his interest shifted to “Space-unit construction” after that.
To provide an emergency temporary housing in a short time is important for the victim of natural disaster. In Kansai Area, we have to make preparation for Nankai Trough Earthquake which is expected in next a few decade. At the Great Hanshin·Awaji Earthquake in 1995, most of emergency temporary housing were built only by the members of Japan Prefabricated Construction Suppliers and Manufacturers Association(JPA) as prefectural government and JPA made the agreement to supply emergency temporary housing in case of those disaster. At the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, affected area was so large and it was hard to build them in a short time. Therefore it took about more then 6month to finish building emergency temporary housing. Still, JPA's prefabricated temporary housing take major role in supplying temporary housing. There must be quicker, more efficient way to supply housing, specially in local areas.
In this study, we have a local builder in proposed site of a Nankai Trough Earthquake, not members of JPA, to build the JPA's emergency temporary housing with construction manual we made fur them to examine the workability, time difference from JPA builders, difficulty the local builders face in the construction process. Those date would help to give oppotunity to local builders to build emergency housings and diversifying the way of providing the temporary houses.
At first construction experiment, Daiwa lease co., JPA's major member and have vast experience of supplying temporary housing, built a two housing unit, on the land owned by the Hirogawa town, Wakayama prefecture. We measure the hours by every kind of works at process of construction, and recorded every workers move and what kind of work they did at construction site. Next step was to make the construction manual for local builders who has no experience to build prefabricated housing. The manual describe every working process, working details. We also made a bolts list because so many types are used for the flame and brace.
At second construction experiment, local builders tried to build the prefabricated housing with the manual we edited for them. Local builder took 89.7h in construction stage, while special contractor Daiwa Lease Co. ltd.(D) took 38.5h. In interior work stage, local builder took 104.5h, slightly shorter than the "D"'s working time of 111.9h. In equipment work stage, local builder rook 14.5h, compare to "D"'s working time of 36.5h. Time difference occurred only in construction stage. There were reasons of the delay fur local builder. One was level of proficiency. Second reason was mistakes the local builder made. The third was troubles in parts choice. The fourth was lacking of instruction in the new manual. Mistakes happened in sills, inner beans, roof beams, wall panels, windows. Troubles in parts choice occured at sills, celling, and roof where each stages had to assemble many types of small parts.
In conclusion, local builder could have build the emergency temporary housing, even though the time difference was big, specially at construction stage, difference were 51.2h. The local builder made several mistakes in construction stage, but improvement to the manual could reduce those mistakes, and troubles in part choice. Those mistakes and troubles could happen because that was their first trial to build it.
In this study, we analyzed the role of the fishery stock organization as well as its ownership transformation and system change transformation and system change in Owase City by divided into the two parts – the sea and the mountains for three periods and clarified the role of the Kuki town since the system has been established.
As a result, here are our findings:
(1) all the local community associations other than the existing “Kuki Neighborhood association” have been derived from the “Kukiura co-operative association”
(2) These associations are operating as management committees of the sea and the mountain commons that has self-governing functions in the communities since 1890. In addition,
(3) Even though the fishing rights and land ownership have been partially transferred to derived organizations over years when municipal systems change, the main management body resides in the “Kuki co-operative association”.
Furthermore, fishery stocks has been transferred to numerous stockholders by complex adaptive system since 1890. Thus, dividend has also been allocated to those who left the community. The dividend distribution system for non-resident shareholders make them as beneficiaries as well as keep them involved in the communities.
This case has a potential to adapt to the further community development system for connecting the other areas to the central hometown. Therefore, this fishing village which depends on the primary sector of the economy has a great prospect to build a sustainable community development by restructuring its existing self-governing system and mechanisms into modernized way including the sea, mountain and its management system.
The formation of business clusters and suburban residential areas in central Tokyo since the end of World War II has resulted in the formation of urban structures accompanied by the temporal and spatial separation of workplace and residence. However, the bipartite spatial structure is not suitable for today’s urban lifestyles and has to be reconsidered. Against the backdrop of the diversification of people’s lives and the increasing risks associated with various aspects of their lives, there is a need for new social systems and urban environments that respond to the diversification of working environments and lifestyles. In light of this situation, the Cabinet Office proposed the “100 million All-Active Society” in 2015 and recommended balancing “work” and “life” that are optimal for individuals. However, the discussion here continues the framework of separated “Work/Life” and mostly centered on the temporal management of “Work” and its environment, with only a supplementary reference to “Life”.
On the other hand, there is a movement to use IT technology to reconsider the relationship between work and life in an integrated manner and to positively redesign. These practitioners are devising ways to freely choose their work and working hours, and by rebuilding the relationship between work and life, they are changing the environment in which they live and the social system associated with it. In this paper, we define such activities as’ ‘Work Life Design’ ‘, and try to obtain knowledge about urban environment necessary for each person to realize the way of working and living suited to their life style by paying attention to the actual state of activities and ingenuity for the redesign.
1) Opportunity to practice seen in life history
A life history survey of these workers revealed that they are making gradual changes in their work and life design while overcoming practical problems. And in the process, it was revealed that they outsource jobs they judged unnecessary for the purpose of changing the way of working and residence, and efficient use of time.
2) Efforts to create a working and residential environment from the perspective of personal belongings
Practitioners choose the goods to carry in order to carry out flexible working and living styles. By using the Internet, they were able to draw out more than their belongings and temporarily transform the space into a working and living environment.
3) Efforts to create a working and residential environment based on the actual use of space
As a result of a survey on space used by practitioners, actual conditions of use and reasons for selection, it was found that living and working environment was developed from first/second place to third place. From the above, it became clear that third places are required to improve their activities as places to work and live, and they are beginning to appear in cities as places for working and living environment that cannot be described by conventional concepts.
Facing each other across the Kanmon Straits, the Japanese cities of Shimonoseki and Moji together demarcate the western entrance to the Seto Inland Sea. As a result of their geographical importance for traffic and commerce, both foreign and domestic, these cities initially developed as port towns. A significant point in their overall process of development was when the Meiji government recognized both Shimonoseki and Moji as locations of importance for national policy in terms of both economic and military matters. Given the growing focus on urban policy in both cities, a fast adoption of the city planning act of 1919 was followed by a subsequent period of successive city planning that continued up until the beginning of the Shōwa era (1926–1989). In this manner, both cities underwent the same process of modernization.
However, these cities differ in terms of the layout of their urban space. These differences are clearly visible in early city planning documents. It is possible to interpret the differences as a result of variations in the principles that guided urban planning in each city. However, another possible conclusion is that working with pre-existing urban spaces was prioritized over any planning principles. In order to investigate these interpretations, this project focused on relevant documentary literature, such as official documents. We have thereby clarified the nature of the first city planning for Shimonoseki and Moji, as well as the details of the city foundations prior to the drafting of the early plans. Previous research has not sufficiently explored these topics.
Through this research, we found that the city planning of both cities followed in the footsteps of pre-existing city foundations; for example, the ports that were constructed prior to the modern era. Of course, the intention behind the planning was important. In the case of city planning for Shimonoseki, for example, we see an inclusion of suburban areas within the planned zone, in order to mitigate urban sprawl. This decision was in accordance with modern urban planning theory. In contrast, the plan for Moji was larger scale plan in mind, where the neighboring urban regions would be included to form the North Kyūshū Industrial Zone. Nevertheless, in both cities, the zoning and street structure was often built upon the urban space established in the pre-modern era. It is difficult to conclude that either city was reconstructed as something genuinely new.
In sum, differences observed between the first city plans for Shimonoseki and Moji should be understood as results of their respective histories of development in the early modern era, rather than as variations in the principles that guided those plans. This is not to say that early city plans were not guided by certain principles. In the same period, there are other cases of excellent, principle-based city planning in Japan. Taking this into account, we can conclude that the manner in which each city initially developed as a port town influenced its subsequent city planning. We anticipate that in future research, this interaction between city planning and prior developmental history can be further clarified through comparisons with case studies of other port cities.
After the park concept had been imported from Western countries, it's been developed especially for children usage from the late 1960s in uniform design by Japanese government standards. Nowadays more than 70% of them holds by neighbourhood parks that are less than 2500 sqm filled with similar play facilities like a swing, a sandbox, and a slide.
In recent year, park-relevant policy actively focuses on improving its quality rather than increasing its quantity, by sharing park functions following local requirements among neighbourhood parks. At the same time, as technology are radically glowing and spreading, the movement of making basic statistics data open-source are getting active. It happens on the local municipality level as a moderate solution between park development by the bottom-up approach which consumes much time and budget of the municipality on the workshop and the top-down approach that has been done last decades. These actions possibly improve the transparency and accountability of government agencies and its planning of parks.
The purpose of this research is to evaluate possible scenarios for function sharing of neighbourhood parks at Adachi ward in Tokyo. Focusing on their project called "Park innovation project", which attempts to share the park functions in Adach ward, neighbourhood questionnaires had been carried out to classify park preferences based on attributes and the value weighting extracted by conjoint analysis. As a result, park preference at the target site has been classified into five typologies.
Based on the park preferences and location environment of each park, the decision-making tool for both citizens and municipality has been proposed to evaluate recent developments and scenarios on multi-criteria of social, environmental, economical and balance aspects. The decision-making tool simulates massive solutions for function sharing with filtering better solution by genetic algorithm, which could narrow down 450 representitive solutions from 1.35+E51 all possible solutions. Comparing the 450 simulation results with the evaluation values of existing parks, it is confirmed that the diversity of functions on present parks are not ensured. However, the improvement of function sharing develompent has been shown by the comparison between developed 9 parks and 28 existing parks. It is also suggested that the need for improved park evaluation by sharing the functions of neighbourhood parks in the region.
There is no solution maximizing all aspects however scenario prioritizing social aspect tends to comprehensively maximize other evaluations rather than scenarios prioritizing balance aspects nor economical aspects, which could easily be chosen by the municipality.
As a conclusion, trade-off among each evaluates aspect has been clarified above, which could bring a milestone towards rapid consensus making with high quality reflecting neighbourhood requirements. As the outcome of the research, the decision-making tool which could be a base of discussion has been proposed, and 450 function sharing scenarios are concluded into datasheets for the actual local workshop very shortly. Those achievements will contribute to actual urban design on public space and will lead to evidence-based park planning.
In response to Japan’s aging society and shrinking population, there is a need to strengthen local relationships between people in daily life. Previous research shows that edible landscape (EL) creates communication and connections among people. However, it is difficult to develop EL in public spaces in Japan because of the concerns regarding privatization of public spaces.
Authors group established the EDIBLE WAY (EW) project aimed at contributing to people's communication and creating a social network for local resilience.
This paper is a practical study aimed at the following: 1) clarify what kind of communication would occur between people on the streets as a result of EW intervention. 2) To estimate the benefits and issues EW produce for local people.
We choose Matsudo city as the project site. It is one of the commuter towns for people working in Tokyo, and also is an aging, shrinking, and isolated society, a typical example in current Japan.
Action Research (AR) was used in this study. EW as AR consists of three phases (Table 1). We developed the method of EW as one of the way to create EL on street in Japan through AR interactive process. We collected the qualitative data from students (participatory observation), EW participants (interviews) in a form of reflexive notes after weekly and monthly activity.
In the 1st phase, we visited local residents and interviewed them if they were interested in EL. We also planned the EW project details: design logo, management, etc.
In the 2nd phase, we placed planter bags with vegetables in private spaces along the street in collaboration with 7 local participants in September 2016. The number of participants gradually increased to 23 due to communication on the street and connections between neighbors (Fig. 4, Table 4). At the end of the 2nd phase, we conducted questionnaire research to 189 residents in the area (Table2, 3, Fig. 5). 51.8% of the respondents enjoyed watching the growing vegetables. 32.4% said that they enjoyed walking along the road (Fig. 7). About 80% of the respondents evaluated that EW contributes to local issues regarding "local greening", "connection with local people", "landscape improvement", and "lack of communication" (Fig. 9). At the time of the questionnaire, we sent invitations, and 18 new people joined EW project from the 3rd phase.
In the 3rd phase, there were 47 participants in total, and more than 100 planters were installed (Fig. 5, Table 4). We started collaboration with other community groups like community garden.
The following points became clear through AR:
① Communication emerges spontaneously while people are engaged in gardening activities and because EW planters with distinctive project logo placed along the street attract people’s attention. The communication on streets occurred in a form of question about project, greeting, conversation, and sharing harvests with not only neighbors but also unknown passers-by.
② EW method contributed to activating communication, community enhancement, local landscape, local food, and environmental education.
As of April 2020, the EW method has been expanded to 9 locations around Tokyo, managed by other groups. Currently, the challenge is to develop an easy to reproduce and sustain - a more effective method to conduct EW in other areas.
This study examines the disaster management performance of the real estate development projects in the special urban renaissance district in Tokyo and employs the findings to assist disaster victims who are unable to return home due to transit disruptions. Chapter 1 assesses the establishment of special urban renaissance districts. Chapter 2 provides an overview of historical measures undertaken by Tokyo prefecture for evacuees stranded due to traffic disruptions. Chapter 3 summarizes the draft plans with a focus on disaster management and clarifies the emphasis that special urban renaissance districts place on measures for evacuees stranded by traffic disruptions. In addition, it provides a detailed explanation of information transmission initiatives that utilize existing facilities in the event of a disaster, and demonstrates the challenges involved with establishing a space for stranded evacuees on higher floors of buildings. Chapter 4 briefly discusses the Urban Renewal and Safety Assurance Plan and uses indicators such as the intake capacity of temporary accommodation facilities and estimation of disaster victims stranded due to traffic disruptions. In addition, it highlights the dangers collectively caused by functions that have been overlooked in the government’s response. Chapter 5 provides a visual overview of the current status of measures for evacuees stranded due to traffic disruptions in the four central wards of Tokyo. Through interviews, we clarified the overall flow to establish temporary civilian accommodation facilities and shed light on the disparities in the prior notice policy. Based on the points clarified in this paper, we believe that future considerations for public-private sector joint disaster drills and the promotion of public awareness will help elevate disaster management performance in special zones for passengers stranded due to traffic disruptions.
In recent years, both life expectancy and “healthy life expectancy” (i.e., the average life period in good health without limitation of activity in daily life or incapacities) have been increasing in Japan. However, the difference between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy has remained roughly unchanged over the last 15 years. This remains a social issue from the viewpoint of the quality of life of older adults as well as social security expenditure. In order to mitigate this issue, it is important to create a pedestrian-friendly walkable environment in which older adults can maintain physical activity. The construction of walking routes as a population-based approach to improve public health can contribute to creating such an environment.
This study aimed to examine the effect of walking routes on the physical activity of older residents as a natural experiment utilizing four-wave panel data of step counts obtained from a large sample in Yokohama, Japan. The sample included older adults aged between 65 and 84 participating in the Yokohama Walking Point Program (YWPP) who recorded their step counts for more than 20 days every March from 2016 to 2019. The construction of three pedestrian-friendly walking routes in Yokohama began in April 2016 and was completed in March 2018. The effective distance of walking routes was changed from 100 to 500 meters (m) in increments of 100 m and residents within each distance were assigned to the intervention group. A longitudinal analysis was conducted employing a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to examine the effect of the walking routes on step counts of older residents by gender.
Step count data from 9,133 men and 8,974 women living in 759 neighborhoods were analyzed. First, the built environment (BE) variables associated with step counts were selected by comparing the AIC of GLMM. As a result, three BE variables (i.e., distance to a station, adequacy of parks, and proportion of public buildings) were included in the AIC-minimum model for men, and two additional variables (i.e., population density and distance to a bus stop) were included for women. Second, changes in step counts between the intervention group and the control group were compared using GLMM with a Group x Year interaction term controlling for sample characteristics and BE variables included in the AIC-minimum model. Consequently, there was no significant difference in step counts between the two groups for the men, whereas the intervention group for the women had significantly more step counts than those in the control group immediately after the completion of the walking routes (i.e., in the third wave). This was significant when the effective distance was set at 200 to 500 m from the walking routes. The intervention/control ratio of step counts in women was approximately 1.04, which was equivalent to 200-300 steps. The shorter the effective distance, the greater the ratio. However, the ratio decreased to almost 1.0 one year after the completion of the walking routes (i.e., in the fourth wave).
In conclusion, the newly constructed walking routes appeared to only have an effect for women with the effect no longer in place one year after the completion of construction. Future studies are needed to clarify what factors cause gender differences in relation to environmental improvement and what measures are effective in maintaining this effect.
In Japan, life expectancy has increased over the last seven years, and this includes “healthy life expectancy” which indicates the years of living in full health without disease and/or injury. However, the gap between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy—nine years for men and twelve years for women—called the unhealthy period, has not changed. Therefore, it is important to shorten the unhealthy period and extend healthy life expectancy to improve the quality of life (QOL) and reduce social security expenses. To do so, it is effective to promote walking, which accounts for 80% of daily physical activity.
There are two approaches to increasing physical activity by walking: the first is to increase the quantity of walking. Many studies focus on built environmental factors to increase walking by personal attributes. The second is to improve the quality of walking, however, only a handful of studies exist on built environmental factors that improve the quality of walking. As an index for the quality of walking, we defined walking intensity by dividing the amount of physical activity by step counts as of March 2017, and analyzed its relationship with built environmental indices (steepness, population density, commercial area ratio, improvement of footpaths, and distance to the nearest station, community center, park, and hospital).
The sample consisted of 10,599 middle-aged men in 281 neighborhoods, 17,752 elderly men in 295 neighborhoods, 15,481 middle-aged women in 293 neighborhoods, and 20,069 elderly women in 296 neighborhoods. First, we analyzed geographical features of walking intensity by creating maps. Second, we analyzed the relationship between built environmental indices and walking intensity by gender and generation using multiple regression analysis.
By creating maps, we found areas that had similar walking intensity in all generations and both genders. In the multiple regression analysis, steepness, distance to the nearest station and hospital, population density, and improvement of footpaths had a significant relationship to walking intensity in any gender and generation. Specifically, we found significant non-linear relationship between distance to the nearest station and walking intensity in middle-aged men. The correlation between steepness and walking intensity was significant only in women; the correlation was positive in middle-aged women and negative in elderly women.
In conclusion, we offered two suggestions. First, we found low walking intensity near stations, which seemed to be due to obstacles to walking, such as high traffic density and narrow sidewalks. The walking environment near station areas must be improved. Second, the relationship between steepness and walking intensity in women was inconsistent by generation, which suggested that the required improvements to built environments differed. In future studies, longitudinal research or research with other generations like rising generation should be conducted to measure changes of participants’ walking intensity.
This paper explores the housing conditions of people with intellectual disabilities (PWID). Within the context of the traditional Japanese welfare system, many PWID live in their parental homes under parental care or in institutions. So that PWID might live separately from their parents, the government has expanded group homes, subsidized rent, and dispatched caregivers for PWID. Nevertheless, the proportion of PWID living with their parents is higher than that of those with physical or psychical disabilities. This study focuses on the housing of PWID who live separately from or after the death of their parents through a questionnaire survey.
A questionnaire survey was administered to PWID living at home through the PWID parent associations. The questionnaire form used in this study included items that inquired about PWID’s age and degree of disability, their desire to live or not live with their parents, their reason for desiring to live with their parents, and where PWID desire to live in the future. The responses of 609 PWID were analyzed via a chi-square test. Respondents were classified as either “living with parents” or “living separately from parents”. The characteristics and the differences of these two types of housing conditions were defined based on the results of the questionnaire survey.
The differences between PWID living with their parents and PWID living separately were PWID’s age, degree of disability, and parental age. The respondents who live with their parents are younger than those who live separately. This applies to the parents, too. As PWID and their parents age, and furthermore, as their parents die, the PWID tend to live separately. Moreover, the respondents who live with their parents have a higher rate of severe intellectual disability than those who live separately. Many of the respondents who live with their parents live in houses owned by their parents.
Ninety percent of respondents who live with their parents have lived with them since birth. Respondents who have always lived with their parents are worried about living separately. Therefore, approximately 60 % of respondents who live with their parents would like to continue doing so in the future. On the other hand, only about 5% of PWID currently want to live separately from their parents, and about 30% of them want to live separately in the future.
Of the reasons given for living separately from their parents, approximately 40% of respondents listed “parental death and age (admission to a hospital)”. Eighty percent of the respondents living separately from their parents live in group homes. The reason that few PWID live somewhere other than group homes is the lack of housing options.
In order for PWID to live separately from their parents, it is necessary to secure housing. It is preferable to have such separation occur in advance rather than at the death of a parent. It is not easy to build many group homes. To this end, it is necessary to supply not only group homes, but also affordable and desirable location rented housing. In particular, PWID who live with elderly parents must hastily arrange housing. Thus, it is hoped that the current study can contribute to supplying housing for PWID.
In this study, I clarify meaning and how to read ‘Block’. ‘Block’ is described in ‘The Tale of Genji’ of the Heian era. ‘Block’ is included in the words indicating the model of Shindenzukuri. It is generally a Chinese‐style reading now. The diary which a noble of the Heian era left is written in a kanji mainly. Therefore, It is not revealed how this kanji was read. The literary work of the Heian era is a hiragana letter. ’Block’ is written by a hiragana letter in ‘The Tale of Genji’.
‘Block’ has two meanings. It is ‘Block’ and ‘Distance’. Ancient ‘Block’ is a block based on ‘Jobo’ City System.
The biography book of ‘The Tale of Genji’ says ‘Yomachi’ by a hiragana letter. As for how to read ‘Block’, biography book notation of ‘The Tale of Genji’ becomes the evidence. It applies to the diary which a noble wrote. Both were written in the Heian era.
The interpretation about ‘Yomachi’ comes to be referred to a supplementary explanation book of ‘The Tale of Genji’ afterwards. The confusion of the meaning of the word ‘Machi’ occurs.
The biography book of ‘The Tale of Genji’ writes ‘Yomachi’ by a hiragana letter. This study clarified how to read ‘Block’ indicating the division of ‘Jobo’ City System.
The purpose of this paper is to reveal how discussions on national housing statistical surveys developed and how the results of these discussions were reflected in actual surveys in Japan.
A previous study revealed that national housing statistics in Japan were established by the "Housing survey of industrial cities" and the "Housing survey of larger cities" in 1941. Another study focused on discussions from 1939 to 1941 and revealed how these surveys were conducted.
This current study revealed the following:
(1) Importance of the 1930 national census and related discussions
In 1923, the "Housing Problem Council" made up of people from the Department of Social Affairs of the Ministry of Interior, Tokyo City, Tokyo Prefecture, and other organizations was founded. The council set a goal to include a housing survey in the 1930 national census.
In 1927, R. Nagaoka, the Director of the Department of Social Affairs and one of the members of the "Housing Problem Council" proposed to the Statistics Bureau of the Cabinet that the census include housing-related items.
Between 1927 and 1929, the Statistics Bureau attempted to include several items in the national census. However, due to the lack of funds, only "number of rooms" was considered.
In 1928, the "Housing Statistics Committee" was established at the Architectural Institute. In 1930, the committee submitted the "Proposal on housing-related items in the national census." It recommended including more housing・ related items only in cities with a population of 50,000 or more. However, this proposal was also not adopted.
Previous studies have not considered the 1930 national census important because "number of rooms" did not provide valid data, given the structure of Japanese housing and the Japanese lifestyle. This current study revealed the importance of the 1930 national census in the process of conducting national housing statistical surveys in Japan because it has led to research and discussions related to methods and items.
(2) Continuity and change of discussions on national housing statistical surveys
After the 1930 census, discussions on the national housing statistical surveys started again in 1939.
The leading figures who led the 1923-30 discussions were R. Nagaoka, T. Sano, Y. Uchida, and Y. Nakamura. They also played an important role in conducting the "Housing survey of industrial cities" and the "Housing survey of larger cities." This means that the results of the discussions up to 1930 were reflected in the discussions after 1939.
On the other hand, during this time, they were changing their policy on national housing statistical surveys. Their goal around 1928 was to obtain housing statistics in all parts of Japan. However, in the process of the execution of the 1930 national census, they learned that it was difficult to conduct it. Therefore, they changed their goal and aimed to conduct a survey that targeted urban housing only. In addition, after the start of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the survey was limited to houses located in "industrial cities" and "larger cities" because solving the housing shortages in these cities was a top priority in carrying out the war.
This article revealed that the "Housing survey of industrial cities" and the "Housing survey of larger cities were not conducted based on short・term discussions during the war, but were conducted as a result of long-term discussions and a response to social conditions.
Traditionally, architectural creation requires sketches, drawings or models made in the design phase prior to construction. This study considers such media as representational media for architectural design. In De re aedificatoria, Alberti presents his own architectural theory, and, especially in Bk. 2 Ch. 1, he discusses drawings or models in architectural design. According to other studies, in Bk. Ch., Alberti might implicitly prohibit architects from using the linear perspective. However, the current author’s previous papers have confirmed that, for Alberti, the linear perspective was a concept to be used, not only by painters, but also by architects and sculptors. However, a question remains unanswered: ‘In Alberti’s view, in what way was the linear perspective most useful for the creation of plastic arts, particularly architectural design?’
This paper draws its clarification via the following two-stage methodology. First, the author examines Alberti’s recognition of the linear perspective as basic technology in plastic arts’ creation – summarising his discussions of the linear perspective. Second, he investigates the fundamental usefulness of the linear perspective in Alberti’s conception of architectural design – referencing his thoughts as delineated in the first stage.
According to the findings from the first sage, for Alberti, the linear perspective is a drawing method founded on the logic of the visual pyramid as the principle of painting. Based on this logic, he presents three painting methods: line drawing, composition and colouring. Among the three, Alberti ranks line drawing as the base of painting, which all plastic artists must study as their own technology. In his conception, the linear perspective is the technology that includes the line drawing – the basic technology for all plastic arts. Thus, Alberti considers the linear perspective to be the basic technology for plastic arts’ creation.
The second stage reveals that Alberti believes the linear perspective to be the technology dealing with outlines of various bodies. According to the current author’s previous papers, Alberti states that such outlines are potential lines, essentially making the external forms of the bodies. He perceives those outlines to actually be the lines as representational media, assumed as basic elements in the nature of the object. He also argues that all the plastic artists must imitate nature to create works. That is, for him, the outlines are the imaginary lines shaping the forms of the works in the plastic artists’ minds. However, according to Alberti’s experiences, plastic artists cannot accurately design their works in their minds only. For accurate design, they must examine the outlines in more concrete loci. Therefore, he gives to the linear perspective the role of reproducing the outlines from artists’ minds on certain picture-planes, for the first time, before the works are realised. Thus, to Alberti, the linear perspective in the creation of plastic arts, including architectural design, is most useful for exactly comprehending, all parts of the works, specifically the outlines shaping their forms.
Through the above findings, the essential significance of the linear perspective in architectural design, from the perspective of Leon Battista Alberti, has been clarified.
This study targets the station-front area, north side of JR Gifu railway station, which includes a textile wholesale district, regarding how developing agencies, official supports, or land ownership affected the formation of commercial and residential districts during the postwar reconstruction period in terms of the composition of the space or actual situation of its constitutive architectural elements.
"Harupin-gai", named after Harbin city in Manchuria, was built by a group of repatriates from Manchuria. Under the leadership of Isamu Takai, they formed the “Hokuman Hikiagemin Koseisha” group in December 1946 and led the construction of barracks and shops north of Gifu Station. The construction funds raised by Takai himself brought back from Manchuria. The site was inaugurated in December 1946 with 14 tenement shop-houses, subsequently increasing its number up to 149 by the time it closed the site in 1950. The Harupin-gai was equipped with indispensable facilities for residents to live collectively, and set the market dealing mainly with used clothes. After the release from GHQ’s control, the Harupin-gai entered into a period of ready-to-wear garment industry, sifting to different characteristics from "black market" in its history and organization. It was led by the Hokuman Hikiagemin Koseisha group from construction to operation.
The next step for the Hokuman Hikiagemin Koseisha group was to construct a large-scale housing district, and thereafter it was realized as "Dai-Harupin-gai", or greater Harbin district. The initial plan starting in 1947 included the construction of 3,000 houses along with cultural and sanitary facilities. Actually, its construction work was processed at the corner of the proposed site, based on the funds mainly from investment by prospective dwellers and profits from textile trading in the Harupin-gai. On the other hand, Takai covertly diverted rationed goods to make up for the shortfall, only to be arrested meanwhile. The Dai-Harupin-gai frustrated to be given up all of its plan. Nevertheless, Takai's developer business was powerful enough to complete 560 houses within a year since its opening, and contemplated to build similar housing development business both in and out of Gifu Prefecture. Ryuji Kagami was in charge of designing the Dai-Harupin-gai’s houses as two-story wooden structure. Acquisition of construction site was hard task due to the involvement of plural stakeholders, yet the Hokuman Hikiagemin Koseisha group has obtained the land use right at today's Hinomoto-cho and Nishitonnya-machi.
While the construction of the Dai-Harupin-gai was on-going, the Harupin-gai in front of the station had to be evicted. During the post-war reconstruction period, official financial support for housing construction was mended either by the Ministry of Post-war reconstruction or through the repatriations' housing program ran by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Some parts of the subsidy for repatriations' housing was even diverted for the evacuation of the Harupin-gai. The construction of welfare houses, started as the substitute of the evacuated Harupin-gai, was designed by Gifu City's Architecture Department, and its construction sites were Hinomoto-cho 4th and Nishitonnya-machi. The building style was a wooden mezzanine-floored type, which exceeded the limit of the surface allowance based on the subsidies. It seems that the original plan of one-story building was modified to add a mezzanine floor due to the demand of the residents of Harupin-gai. Welfare houses were built to be inserted to vacant lots that had been established along with the construction of the Dai-Harupin-gai.
This study aims to calculate the betweenness centrality according to the slope of the three-dimensional street network by taking in the metabolic conversion distance. Furthermore it aims to grasp the importance of the streets that compose the network according to the tendency of human route selection.
Therefore, the four centralities are defined. as follows:
1)Betweenness Centrality;Number of Links：The route with the minimum number of links passing from any start point to any end point is defined as the shortest route. The evaluation value is the frequency that any link is passed on all the shortest routes.
2)Betweenness Centrality;Distance：Based on a two-dimensional map, the index is based on the distance between each street. The route with the minimum sum of the distances from any start point to any end point is defined as the shortest route, and the evaluation value is the frequency of passing through any link in all the shortest distance routes.
3)Betweenness Centrality;Slope：This centrality considers the slope of the street. The shortest route is defined as previously noted, and the evaluation value is the frequency passing through any link in all the smallest slopes routes.
4)Betweenness Centrality;Metabolism：This value in total considers the distance and slope in a three-dimensional street network. The route with the minimum sum of metabolic conversion distances from any start point to any end point is defined as the shortest route, and the evaluation value is the frequency of passing through any link in all of the shortest metabolic conversion distance routes.
These were applied to two simplified models and actual streets, and the method's effectiveness of the method was demonstrated.
First, based on Betweenness Centrality;Number of Links, using the number of links as an index, links in the center of the street network tend to be selected. Based on Betweenness Centrality;Distance, using the two-dimensional distance as an index, links having a short two-dimensional distance tend to be selected. Based on Betweenness Centrality;Slope, links with a small slope tend to be selected. Based on Betweenness Centrality;Metabolism, links with a short three-dimensional distance and a low slope tend to be selected. Therefore, it can be said that way finding Betweenness Centrality;Metabolism is valid in selecting a route to calculated the moving cost is calculated according to the distance and slope when a person moves.
Next, applying Betweenness Centrality;Metabolism to Chuo-ku, Kobe, the value of streets with relatively short distances and small slopes in the site became higher. Subsequently, it was shown that Betweenness Centrality;Metabolism is an index suitable for the current situation of Kobe.
Finally, the importance of the street was visualized using Betweenness Centrality;Metabolism, assuming the case of traveling around a spot or passing through a proposed street. A new important area was proposed by designating a street adjacent to the tourist attraction "Sorakuen". Those are useful in focusing on commerce and tourism planning.
Teachers nowadays are required to improve lessons by promoting active learning methodology, which was prescribed in new guidance on national course of study in Japan announced in the official gazette in 2017. Therefore, teachers are trying to practice the methodology in their classes. Moreover, education authorities are requested to provide teachers with adequate resources, including education materials, to promote the methodology. In the meantime, although there are a number of researches that were conducted to analyze how classrooms are utilized in lessons and how teachers evaluate the size of classrooms, there are only a few past studies that involved factors such as use of ICT instruments/devices, change of seating arrangements during lessons, etc. Using ICT instruments/devices and changing seating arrangements during lessons are promoted, when teachers practice the methodology.
A questionnaire survey was conducted in summer 2018 to reveal current utilization of classrooms and teachers’ evaluation on size of classrooms at schools promoting active learning. The questionnaires were sent to 68 elementary schools and 68 lower secondary schools nationwide. Subsequently, 56 answers were received from elementary schools and 58 answers from lower secondary schools likewise.
The collected data showed that the median size of classroom was 64 square meters at elementary schools and 65 square meters at lower secondary schools. The median number of students per classroom was 30 at elementary schools and 32 at lower secondary schools. The ratio of schools where all the belongings of students were stored at individual storage space was 24.4 percent at elementary schools and 44.2 percent at lower secondary schools. Regarding the evaluation on size of classrooms by teachers, four-point evaluation method was used and the data showed that average point of teacher’s satisfaction on size of classroom was 3.45 points at elementary schools and 3.60 points at lower secondary schools. After examining the data further by scatter plot graphs and correlation coefficient tables, where appropriate, several variables were chosen as possible factors that could affect teachers’ evaluation on size of classrooms.
Multilevel regression analysis was used for multivariable analysis to assess the effect of the chosen factors on the teachers’ evaluation on size of classrooms. The analysis result showed that learning style/seating arrangements and class size/number of students per classroom affected teachers’ evaluation on size of classrooms at elementary schools. At lower secondary schools, similarly, storage conditions affected the teachers’ evaluation. Furthermore, those results suggest that current average-size classrooms, from 64 to 65 square meters, are not large enough at schools where number of students per classroom is significantly large, ICT instruments such as projector are used, or individual storage space is too small.
Finally, the study results are expected to contribute to the improvement of size of classrooms, since education authorities are requested to provide adequate resources to support teachers to practice active learning methodology.