The purpose of this study is to clarify how "Interspace" was reflected in the proposed drawings and planned as part of the plan configuration in the major design competitions of the time in the Taisho era, when foreign spatial concepts such as balconies and terraces were imported into Japan by Westernization.
In the design competitions of 1915, most of the proposals often consisted of a continuation room on the south side and a kitchen or tea room on the north side. However, most of the proposals had no corridors, and the floor plan was designed to be customer-focused, with a veranda around the perimeter to connect plumbing spaces such as lavatories and bathrooms so that the family's traffic line did not overlap with the guest's traffic line. Therefore, the curbside, which is a semi-outdoor space, had a corridor-like character to secure the movement line function within the house.
In the design competition in 1916, many Japanese style houses had a "middle corridor type" with a central interior corridor. At this time, although the veranda in many of the proposals had lost their circulation function, the space was still attached to the rooms on the south side, and had been transformed into a space that had the character of Hare; noticeably cheerful and formal places.
In the design competitions in 1919 and 1921, there was a rapid increase in the number of proposals that mimicked Western-style houses, and many proposals were for two-story buildings. Thus, a hall with a staircase appears, and the floor plan form that accesses the various rooms from that hall increases. At the same time, we were able to identify a number of Interspaces, such as balconies and terraces, which were deeper than the curbs, and which were assumed to contain furniture that could not be passed through.
At the Heiwa Housing Expo in 1922, which was held in accordance with the "Six Ambitions for Housing Improvement" announced by the Life Improvement League in 1920, all houses were unified into a seated style. The corridor, which causes an increase in floor space, was considered uneconomical, and in order to make the floor plan extremely compact, many proposals were made for a living room-centered floor plan, in which each room is almost like a continuous one room. This living room-centered floor plan was a manifestation of a cultural housing style in which the family's life was the center of attention, but there were few proposals that included "Interspace" because “Interspace” increase the floor areas.
The rational, minimalist, living room-centered floor plan was not very popular. Instead, at the later Kaizo Housing Expo in 1922, while many of the middle corridor and hall types appeared, the living room, the center of family life, tended to remain the largest space compared to the other rooms. In addition, living room-centered floor plan was still maintained, and “Interspace” such as balconies and terraces, which have a residual character, appeared again in the form of continuity with the living room as the center of the house.
In recent years, "welfare conversion" is attracting attention. It means to renovate and utilize existing buildings as useful local stocks for welfare functions and services. It is thought that the use and composition of the rooms have changed before and after, but the actual conditions have not been clarified. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the change of the room composition before and after the conversion from another type buildings in Nagano City.
First, as a preliminary survey, we extracted 79 converted welfare facilities from 446 facilities in Nagano City. After that, we did a detailed survey at 49 facilities and analyzed them in three stages : before conversion, how to convert, after conversion. There was no major tendency in the room composition before conversion. As for the method of conversion, room division and integration were often seen, and we realized that the largest rooms, which are relatively large in the whole, were often room division. In addition, it was confirmed that complex conversion was done with room additional. Furthermore, we analyzed the room composition after conversion based on the correspondence between functional training rooms and private rooms which are important rooms in welfare facilities, and group of rooms or the largest room. We understand that group of private rooms and the largest functional training room occupy most of the room composition, and it is important to make largest functional training room after conversion.
Next, we compared the room composition before and after conversion, and found five types of units that had common room composition changes. As a result, we found that not only the before room composition was converted to welfare facility just as it is, but also the expansion and renovation was performed. Furthermore, according to the flow of conversion, the functional training rooms will be made regardless of the existing condition, so various functional training rooms will be provided regardless of the facility classification. For this reason, it is necessary to anticipate spatial issues such as livability.
Thus, we clarified that the changes in the room composition of the existing facilities were converted while taking advantage of the characteristics of the before room composition, and made a private room and a function training room. In addition, we think that it is necessary to discuss about the livability required for not only the private room but also the functional training room in the future welfare conversion.
“Unit care”, in which a small number of residents live together, has been one of the effective methods to the practice of individual care in elderly facilities. The unit care type facilities were adopted not only in the nursing home but also in other elderly facilities and welfare facilities. However, the unit type is said to have the following problems. The first is that the staff spends a lot of time alone assisting in the unit, and the second is that it is difficult to educate staff.
So, in this survey, from the viewpoint of planning of scale in care group, we are considered improvement of working environment of staff.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of the differences in the scale of nursing care units on the work system and nursing care contents. The subjects of the survey were: 7-8 person unit, 10-person units (2 facilities A, B), 12-person unit and 13-person unit.
The survey methods were interview survey, behavior observation survey and activity amount survey of staffs. The period of behavior observation survey was 24 hours × 3 days, and the target unit were 2 units of each facility.
(1) Shift of care staffs during the daytime: The 7-8 person unit and 10-person unit B had a two-person system for early and late shift. The 10-person unit A had a three-person system for early, day, and late shift. The 12-person unit and the 13-person unit had a four-person system for early, day shift, and two late shift staffs.
(2) Percentage of the number of staffs stayed in the unit: In the 7-8 person unit, the ratio of no staff in the unit was 8.4% (75.6 minutes). On the other hand, in the 12-person unit, the ratio of two or more staffs in the Unit was 64.2% and that in the 13-person unit was 73.3%.
(3) Percentage of time when there was no staff in LDK: 7-8 person unit is 51% (464.6 minutes), 10-person unit A was 37% (333 minutes) and 10-person unit B was 36% (324 minutes). 12-person unit 37% (333 minutes) and 13-person unit was 28% (243 minutes). The difference between the 7-8 person unit and the 13-person unit was as large as 23%.
(4) Characteristics of individual assistance: Regarding bathing assistance, the 13-person unit also provided assistance at night, but the 10-person unit A and the 10-person unit B provided assistance in the morning.
As for dietary assistance, breakfast was provided at all facilities in accordance with the life rhythm of individual residents. For lunch and dinner, the 7-8 person unit, 10 person unit A, 10 person unit B and 12 person unit had a uniform meal time, but the 13 person unit had a long meal time and individual care was possible.
Regarding excretion assistance, in the 12-person unit and the 13-person unit, the difference between the regular excretion assistance time and that in other time zones was small, and excretion assistance was frequently provided.
(5) Information transmission such as records and business conversation: In the 7-8 person unit, there were few conversations during work, and information was communicated by meeting and recording. In the 12-person unit, in addition to records, there were long meeting time and business conversations during work, and information was shared among staffs.
At this small-scale facility, the main room consists of floor space and a tatami area. This paper aims to explain the relation between the factors which specify the areas dedicated to leisure time, meals, napping, and functional training, and the actions of users and staffs. The analysis focused on the relation between the tatami corner’s floor level difference with the main room’s floor space, and users’ daily life acts or staffs’ acts of care. Based on the acquired knowledge, I focused on the room’s usage composition at this small-scale facility, which installed a tatami corner.
The results are as follows.
１）Regarding the usage patterns of the main room, which includes a tatami area, 4 types were classified. First, the FTL+N type, in which leisure time, functional training and meals take place on the FS, and naps take place in the tatami area. Second, the FTLn+N type, in which free time, functional training, and meals are held on the FS, and the tatami area is fundamentally used for napping. Additionally, napping on beds and resting on sofas are partly held on the FS. Third, the FTLn+ (N) model, in which free time, functional training, and meals are held on the FS. As few users take naps and rest on the beds or sofas on the FS, the tatami area is not used for napping. Finally, the TL+FN type, in which functional training and meals are held on the floor space, and relaxation and naps are held in the tatami area.
２）Although the main room’s floor space is the “life base”, where meals, functional training and relaxation during leisure time take place, the floor space has restrictions. There are some instances in which users spend time in the appointed seats and little movement besides going to the restroom or bathing can be observed. Conversely, some facilities place the beds on the floor space for napping or resting purposes, in addition to the furniture dedicated to relaxation such as sofas in the FTLn+N type or in the FTLn+(N) model corner arrangement type. The present floor space’s floor level indicates that the relaxation area, which requires users to bring their own seating and can be visited freely, cannot be fully secured. Furthermore, during functional training, the lunch tables are put away and ample room is secured in many cases, which engenders anxiety about issues such as the users’ generated waiting time within the floor space, or the discontinuation of individual activities.
３）The tatami corner has a level difference as large as 30-40 cm with the FS, and a large portion of the facility, contrary to assumptions at the time of design, does not function as a relaxation area but rather solely serves as a napping corner, or unused space. The increasing degree of care accompanying the facility’s aging daily users highlights their declining strength regarding their walking or stair-climbing abilities, and the growing number of elderly people facing difficulty with floor seating. As a result, everyday relaxation will also be held on the floor space, where meals or functional training take place.
The Housing Loan Corporation had introduced various extra loans and special loans since 1972, and in the middle 1990s, the number of them reached approximately forty kinds. This paper focuses on the extra financing added by the Housing Loan Corporation and the followings are clarified: first, the extra financing of HLC was a means of raising the residential environment level of Japanese houses. Fundamentally, the expenses for construction work to expand floor space of houses, install devices for barrier-free, save energy, extend service life of houses and adapt regionality around houses were added to basic loan by it. Therefore, houses with the extra financing of HLC required to have larger floor space than the upper limit of the HLC construction criteria or higher specification than the HLC standard specifications.
Second, the extra financing of HLC was a main means of enlarging floor space of Japanese houses, that was a goal set by the fourth five-year housing construction plan. It enabled to exceed the upper limit of floor space determined by the HLC construction criteria. In the early 1980s, the extra financing to expand floor space was virtually financed to only stem families, but in the late 1980s, not a few nuclear families used that. As a result, the average floor area of houses with the Government Housing Loan became larger than the average of all new houses in Japan in the 1990s.
Third, the extra financing of HLC popularized new technical criteria on housing widely in Japan. For example, the Housing Loan Corporation started the extra financing to thermal insulation work required by New Energy Saving Standards before it had been formally established. In the introduction of the extra financing to wooden three stories houses, HLC prepared a semi-fireproof construction system for conventional wooden houses, and induced to build wooden semi-fireproof houses in earnest since 1993. Furthermore, in the previous year of the technical criteria of small septic tank of combined treatment established, HLC started to the extra financing to the installation work of it and led the upgrade of treating domestic wastewater.
Thus, the extra loans and special loans financed by HLC provided an incentive to apply new specifications for housing. But HLC didn’t develop any technical criteria to introduce them. Although higher specifications required for the extra financing gradually appeared in the HLC standard specifications, they were basically developed by other organizations. In conclusion, the Government Housing Loan System provided a practical motivation to various technical criteria developed by other systems, and handed down them to Housing Performance Indication System started in 2000.
The aim of this study is to verify effects of proposals for quantification analysis method of changes of discretely visual information using 360° panorama image through model study for palazzo type gallery space.
In this study, 360° panorama image is defined as objective quantification analysis method without trimming from the viewpoint of observer. 360° panorama image is the image data photographed by omnidirectional camera having two fish-eye lenses in the front and back. It is possible to eliminate direction (trimming action in photograph shooting), because shooting omnidirectional space from human eye level (1,500 mm). So, visual changes of space can be objectively quantified. We can analyze the percentage of area on the visual information by equal-area cylindrical projection.
The study architecture is Castelvecchio Museum designed by Carlo Scarpa. The characteristic of this model architecture is rooms of the same form are continuous in tuft. There is gallery space that can be free movement. In this study, focus on changes in visual information formed by the layout of elements. Through comparison and estimation on previous qualitative discussion, the effects of the quantification analysis method can be shown.
It was confirmed that a variety of spatial experiences were created without the same changing of visual information.
The proposal quantification analysis method works almost well, so that possibility of this study as a new space analysis method is indicated.
Recently, the word “ibasho” has been attracting increasing attention in Japan. The term initially referred to the physical space that a person occupies; however, since about 1980s, it has come to include mental and social aspects related to the increasing attention that social isolation has received. Considering the various explanations that previous research has offered, “ibasho” can be deﬁned as “the place where people ﬁnd that they can subjectively acquire a sense of self-receptiveness, self-efﬁciency or opportunity to relate with others, as inﬂuenced by physical and social conditions.”
As society becomes interested in ibasho, more people are attempting to make space for the promotion of others’ quest to ﬁnd it. With the goal of widening ibasho-making’s currently insufﬁcient economic base, the government has launched new programs to help spread these activities; however, this is occurring amid concerns that such programs can actually be detrimental to the characteristics of making ibasho by, for instance, reducing the ﬂexible management that promote users’ ibasho-ﬁnding through the imposition of governmental program regulations.
This paper focuses on community cafes which is representative cases of making of “ibasho”, and aims to clarify how governmental programs inﬂuence community cafe as well as managers’ user-directed methods for mitigating detrimental inﬂuences. Interviews with managers and ﬁeld surveys of 25 advanced cases were conducted. Fifty programs related to community cafe were classiﬁed by program content and the typologies of positional relation with community cafes. Program content was classiﬁed in the following categories: elder care (severe), elder care (mild), community development, disability welfare, child welfare, the establishment of a community’s base, and the use a vacant store. Meanwhile, the typologies of positional relation were classiﬁed as follows: separated type, temporary share type, and constant share type.
The results led to the following ﬁndings:
1) Inﬂuences are recognized more when governmental programs are used for management as opposed to when they are used for opening.
2) Inﬂuences are different for each typology of positional relation between governmental programs and community cafe. The following are frequently recognized inﬂuences across every classiﬁcation of positional relation: network expansion, user increase and diversification, burden increase, and management restriction. In general, the governmental programs that do not share space constantly tend to be perceived as beneﬁcially inﬂuential while those that do share space tend to be associated with detrimental inﬂuences.
3) Base business governmental programs tend to enjoy recognition as inﬂuential factors more than their ancillary business counterparts.
4) In order to tackle governmental programs’ detrimental inﬂuences, managers deal with users in various ways. Positive operations are the main method for reducing the “trouble among users,” which is a detrimental inﬂuence that emerges from programs that do not constantly share space. Moreover, positive and negative operations as well as the use of negative facility equipment are the main methods for reducing the “problematic user tendencies” and the “misunderstanding by locals,” which are detrimental inﬂuences that emerge from programs that share space. As such, managers’ strategies for reducing detrimental inﬂuences also differ for each positional relation typology that is common between governmental programs and community cafes.
5) In some cases, governmental programs are not used because mangers ﬁnd lack of a suited government programs.
Healthcare-art (HCA) in hospitals can be expected to reduce stress and distract patients. The introduction of HCA is effective not only for the mental and physical care of patients, but also for the hospital management. The purpose of this research is to clarify what kind of HCA, how it was introduced, and how it is used. It also aims to bring out issues for further diffusion.
2. Research method
we conducted a questionnaire on the spread of HCA. A questionnaire was sent by mail to the hospital secretary for all 2,475 hospitals. We received a response from 508 hospitals (20.5%). In addition, we conducted interviews with 5 AD / AC who had experience working in hospitals.
From the questionnaire and the interview, the following conclusions were ...
1) Over 60% of hospitals have introduced HCA, which is either environmental design, art work, or art activity. There is a gap in the rate of introduction by prefecture, and the introduction of HCA is not systematic and is left to individual hospitals.
2) More than half of them have art works such as paintings and photographs and art activities such as music concerts. Various other arts have been widely introduced, but the rate is low.
3) 60% of HCA do not specify users such as entrances and corridors, 20% of them are for the elderly and adults, 10% are pediatric patients, and 5% are female patients. About 10% of the hospitals are targeted at staff.
4) Elderly people need music that provides a temporary rest and HCA to feel nature, pediatric patients need environmental design such as murals and relaxing music, female patients need a healing environment such as painting, fresh flowers, BGM.
5) 60% of HCA introdused during new construction of buildings. Also, proposals from doctors / nurses and architects have led to the introduction. HCA was funded by the hospital.
6) The effect of HCA was awareness in 1/3 of hospitals. There are few employment of AD / AC who manages art. On the other hand, more than 80% feel the need for art.
7) Hospitals that do not have HCA have less awareness of art than hospitals that do. It is expected that base up to introduse HCA by raising the recognition.
8) Budget and personnel shortages are obstacles to the introduction of HCA. In addition, it is difficult to keep operations due to lack of evidence.
9)AD / AC was employed by the decision of the hospital director / director. It is triggered by the activities of NPOs and universities . AD / AC is working on PS improvement, ES improvement, philosophical manifestation, branding, regional exchange, and operational improvement.
10) There are two types of AD/AC: one that continuously operates in the same hospital and one that operates independently in multiple hospitals. The continuous type is supported by hospital staff, and the one-off type works in collaboration with a design company.
11) The issues of HCA introduction and subsequent maintenance are as follows. (1) Resolving lack of awareness about HCA, (2) Securing and developing human resources who have specialized knowledge and can lead, (3) Securing budget for introducing and maintaining HCA activities, (4) Accumulating evidence regarding the effects of HCA, (5) Exchange of information among HCA practitioners.
This research focuses on the relationship between the manipulation of human spatial localization criteria and the accuracy of place identification. Through two experiments using virtual environment techniques, we quantitatively examine the effect of misdirection of street orientation time it takes to identify a previously sighted street. By clarifying the effect of those two on identification time, useful knowledge will be obtained about sign planning and street designing for constructing urban space challenging to get lost. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of street directional indication right or wrong on the identification time of a previously pass street through two experiments using virtual environment techniques.
Experiments were conducted by presenting to the subjects several street movies recorded with a 360-degree-stereoscopic camera via head-mounted-display. In these experiments, we offer walk-through movies of the same street twice to subjects in the virtual space and measure the time until the subject judges that they have passed through the place once as the identification time. And we prepare a group of subjects who directed the street in the same direction as the first time and a group of subjects who directed the street direction in a different direction.
In Experiment I, one street movie, named "measurement street, " was presented twice. Experiment I has two experimental conditions with one variable.
・Two types of street orientation instruction: "the-same-direction-group, " was instructed the street orientation in the same direction as the first and "the-different-direction-group, " was instructed the street orientation on the different direction from the first experience.
On the other hand, in Experiment II, two types of measurement streets (measurement street I and II) were presented twice during one term of the Experiment, as in Experiment I. Experiment II has four experimental conditions created by combining the following two variables.
・Two types of streets: there are measurement street I without landmark and measurement street II with a landmark.
・Two types of street orientation instruction: "the-same-direction-group," was instructed the street orientation in the same direction as the first and "the-different-direction-group," was instructed the street orientation on the different direction from the first.
What both experiments had in common was that the subjects were asked to stop the video as soon as they recognized the current street as the same street they had once passed. Streetscape identification speed was calculated the time it took the subjects to stop the video, to determine that they had previously experienced the same street.
As the main result of two experiments, the identification speed of "the different direction group" was significantly slower than the speed of "the same direction group." Furthermore, on "measurement-street II" where the landmark is visible, the groups' identification speeds were significantly faster than the speed on measurement-street I, without landmark.
These results indicate that in the street without a characteristic element, it becomes hard to identify the street passed before by instructing the direction different from the first time. However, it also indicates that the effect immediately is disturbed by a characteristic element like a landmark.
In the future, we would like to examine the effect of the misdirection of spatial localization criteria on location identification by taking into account the subjects' memory retention ability and also by examining the effect of the presence or absence of landmarks on the accuracy of location identification.
Much attention has been drawn to private libraries operated by NPOs as an activity to revitalize local communities. With the cooperation of residents and volunteers, these libraries are built in vacant stores or spaces with the aim of promoting community revitalization by encouraging people to interact.
This study reveals the relationship between management issues and space resources, by analyzing the motivation for opening private libraries based on statistics in the early days of establishment.
As a result, the followings become clear:
1) This study analyzed the motivation for opening private libraries and found a trend that consists of four components (axes). By interpreting each of the axes, the research found the first axis: “Desire for places/things”, the second axis: “Utilization of books themselves/ripple effect of books”, the third axis: “Personal (management’s) perspective/regional perspective”, and the fourth axis: “Appeal by books/improvement of operation”.
2) The motivation for establishing private libraries found in 1) is influenced a lot by the usage of existing places adjoining the library, and the combination of the places’ issues and the Desire for books or the library forms the motivation.
3) There is a relationship between the usage of places adjoining the library and “how to procure the space”, and operators utilize resources such as spaces owned by the adjoining place to prepare the place to open. In addition, by analyzing the causal relationship between the motivation for establishment and “how to procure the space”, it is found that directly operated libraries have initial motivations to revitalize the community or deal with a vacant store, procuring “vacant spaces” mostly. It also becomes clear that in the case of nursing homes or stores, libraries are established based on the current situation and issues of the usage of adjoining places that are already operating, and that there are many cases of “not yet procured” using existing spaces. For condominiums, there are motivations for product planning first, then they procure the space in conjunction with the construction of a new condominium (“new construction”).
From the results above, it is clear that the motivation for establishing private libraries is formed by issues or desires that the usage of adjoining places have, and by space resources that each operating entity owns.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the environmental effects obtained by preserving the cultural landscape of Aichi Prefecture, Inazawa-city, Sobue-cho, Yamazaki District, a rural community in the suburbs where agriculture and lifestyle culture are closely related, and where the landscape is formed and characterized by Ginkgo Trees. A survey was conducted on farmers' attitudes toward yashiki ginnan and ginkgo fields, and the thermal environment was observed. The results are summarized below.
・The rural community environment in which Ginkgo Trees are distributed in a mosaic pattern provides residents with a refreshing feeling, and the farmers who preserve the yashiki ginnan feel that they are useful as a windbreak in the summer.
・The farmers do not get tired of seeing the Ginkgo Trees each year which have always been a close presence, and they feel the changes of the four seasons through them and acknowledge the very landscape created by nature as the charm of the community. On the other hand, a decrease in the number of yashiki ginnan and opinions against their preservation demonstrate a fading awareness towards the preservation of yashiki ginnan. Reasons for this involve the aging of the trees, loss of commercial value, and the rebuilding of the yashiki, (residence) along with problems in consideration of neighbors including smell and management of fallen leaves.
・The cool island intensity of yashiki ginnan and ginkgo fields are shown to be 1.9 ℃ stronger at the maximum temperature than the artificial environment without ginkgo trees, forming a cool island.
・In addition to their traditional role as windbreaks and firebreaks, the Ginkgo Trees also provided refreshing feelings and produced a cooling effect in the summer. The yashiki ginnan and ginkgo tree fields proved to have environmental value and be well received as a result of a continuous agricultural lifestyle.
This study clarified the process of forming wine regions in Tomi City, Nagano Prefecture in Japan, where abandoned farming land is being reused for small wineries. Nagano Prefecture has 38 wineries (2019), second only to Yamanashi Prefecture.
At present, most of Nagano's wineries are small-scale wineries. In particular, Tomi City, located in the eastern part of Nagano Prefecture, became a wide region wine special zone in the “eastern Chikuma River Wine Valley” in 2015, together with the surrounding municipalities. Ten wineries were established within a span of five years after certification.
In the special wine zone, wineries can obtain a brewing license by producing a minimum of 2000 liters of wine per year. Usually, more than 6000 liters of brewing was required per year in Japan. This deregulation has made it easier to establish small wineries. However, since the producing of high-quality wines requires good quality raw materials. Therefore, winery founders started their own cultivation of wine grapes, which also requires the skills of a wine-growing farmer.
In addition, since grapes are easily damaged, it is necessary to send them for the fermentation process as soon as possible after harvesting. Therefore, it is desirable that the vineyard and the wine-making factory are close to each other. In other words, the wine-making process, from cultivation and harvesting to brewing, characterizes the wine industry as local industry, rooted in the region, unlike beer and sake.
The wine industry human resource development center “Arc En Vigne” was established in Tomi City in 2015.
It supports people who want to establish a winery in cooperation with the agricultural production company “Shinshu Ueda Farm”.
Arc En Vigne started the Chikuma River Wine Academy, which teaches winemaking techniques and winery management know-how to those who want to establish a winery. Shinshu Ueda Farm supports the establishment of a winery by hiring people who want to make wine as new grape farmers for two years.
In Tomi City, along with these support systems, a diverse winemaking community has been established. In includes those who have already established wineries, newcomers who are trying to establish a winery, a community studying wine-making techniques and management, a community of trainees, and an internet community limited to the growing of wine grapes.
Hence, a multi-tiered community is formed, which facilitates the exchange of information and technical advice.
This complex and multi-layered community connection is called a "Regional Linkage", and it is a factor that accelerates the accumulation of wineries, thus leading to be the formation of wine producing regions in Tomi City.
Recently, in many shopping streets, vacant shops have been increasing due to changes in consumer behavior, aging of merchants. Also, because of the evolution of the internet and transportation, consumers can purchase products quickly and easily through the internet and supermarkets. As a result, consumers no longer need to go shopping directly, so it is expected that in the future, consumers will no longer go to shopping streets to purchase products. Accordingly, the survival of shopping streets is threatened.
On the other hand, in the previous study, it is argued that the revitalization of a shopping street is desirable in the city as an attractive place where people can relax. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan also announced that creating a shopping street as an attractive place could contribute to an increase in the number of visitors and the activation to consume.
In this research we collected case study of Hondori shopping street in Fukuyama city which have removed the arcade and conducted Environment Improvement of Commercial Streets. We also quantitatively investigated the effects of street improvements in shopping districts by questionnaire survey of the satisfaction level of merchants and visitors concerning said improvements. To evaluate the effect of improvement in shopping streets, the merchants' changes in continuation awareness were observed, and the visitors were inquired about the changes in the shopping streets' image and changes in their visit awareness as visitors. This study is conducted as follows.
1) We clarify the demographics of respondents through a questionnaire at the Hondori shopping street.
2) Based on the results of the questionnaire, we clarify the satisfaction level following shopping street improvement, changes in image, and changes in the awareness of merchants and visitors.
3) We clarify the relationship between variables by factor analysis and correlation analysis and analyze how shopping streets improvement affects the changes in the awareness of merchants and visitors
4) We suggest a Structural Equation Model(SEM) using AMOS25.0 and describe the relationship between shopping street improvement and changes in visitors' awareness.
The result is as follows. The merchants were satisfied with the improvement of the shopping streets at three points or higher. It was clarified that the continuation awareness was generally positively changed. As a result of regression analysis, it cannot be said that commonplace management such as the removal of arcades affects the changes of continuation awareness in merchants, but correlation analysis shows that commonplace management is related to changes in the atmosphere of shopping streets. The result of the questionnaire for visitors showed that the satisfaction level about street improvement was all 3 points or more. In other words, visitors were satisfied with the shopping street improvement and it became clear that the image became more positive. Among the improvements, it was found that the improvement of the landscape had the greatest influence on the changes in visitors' awareness. On the other hand, the changes in the image were divided into three factors: Activity, Openness, and Diversity. Also, it was discovered that the changes in the image affected the changes in visitors' awareness. As a result of the SEM, it became clear that the changes in the image and the satisfaction level by shopping street improvement had a strong correlation with each other and also affected the change in visitors' awareness.
Five Wi-Fi packet sensors were installed at the sightseeing hotspots in Yokohama Minato Mirai 21 area to investigate the visitor stay and pedestrian flow characteristics for the purpose to verify the applicability of Wi-Fi packet sensor survey methodology in urban planning, and to provide the reference data for visitor-friendly, disaster responsible city area develop planning. A database was constructed, and the big data analysis tool was developed to have the visitor stay and movement characteristics from various aspect.
For the visitor trend during a day, the result shows that the number of visitor increases from the morning to its peak time, and then gradually decreases for both weekday and weekend in all monitored site except CIAL Sakuragicho station, although the peak hours on weekday and weekend at each facility are slightly different around the noon. The peak hour in CIAL Sakuragicho maintains certain time around 11:30 to 17:45 in weekday, and 13:30 to 16:30 in weekend. About the long time trend of visitor during the monitoring period, the result shows there is remarkable difference in weekday and weekend in all monitored sites except CIAL Sakuragicho station, about 50% more visitor coming in weekend than weekday, and the number of visitor visiting most is CIAL Sakuragicho station, World porters, Akaranka warehouse, Keihin ferry and Shinko terminal.
The investigation also discloses that the stays of less than 5 mins in each monitoring spots is overwhelmingly large, and basically the number of visitor stays decreased to about 1/3 ~ 1/2 in each 5 minutes, there is very less visitors stay at a spot more than 30 minutes. Based on this result, it is not appropriate to set up facilities for long-staying customers such as dealers and service facilities around these hot spots. And it is appropriate to install simple and easy-to-read signs as tour and disaster evacuation guidance.
The analysis also easily shows the most frequent movement happens in the route between Keihin ferry dock and World porters bus stop, the second is the route between World porters and Akaranka warehouse, and there is 40%~80% more movement in each route in weekend than weekday, which was time consuming to have by investigators' counts and hearing surveys. Specific to each sightseeing spot, the most movement destination of CIAL Sakuragicho, Shinko Futo, Akaranka warehouse, and Keihin Ferry dock is World porters, and it is Keihin ferry for World porters. And, about the coming origins of visitor in each spot, World porters is the biggest source for CIAL Sakuragicho, Akaranka warehouse, Keihin Ferry, and Akaranka warehouse is the biggest source for Shinko Futo. Therefore, it is appropriate to place the visitor guidance and rescue information in the route between Keihin ferry dock and World porters, and between World porters and Akaranka warehouse.
Above result confirmed that the methodology and analysis system based on the data collected by Wi-Fi packet sensor can be continuously used in visitor data collecting over a wide area from various urban plan aspects for long period investigation, which has been a difficult in conventional investigators' counts and hearing survey.
Artists draw the conceptual perception of the landscape in poetry and paintings from a long time ago, in Film these days. The landscape existed at the moment of the shooting is captured in the film, and the artist's conceptual perception of the landscape is depicted in the background.
However, as a result of viewers relying on the objective information of the film, evaluation aiming at visual similarity has occurred. As a result of this biased evaluation, the conceptual perception of the landscape is lost, and there is a risk that the landscape may be modified based on the surface of the works.
In order to avoid the danger of landscape modification based on the viewer's biased perception, it is necessary to methodically understand the landscape perception of the filmmaker. Therefore, I paid attention to the possibility of reading the thoughts and methodology to percept behind the production from the interviews and writings. The purpose of this study is to clarify the position of the landscape of film director in the production process from their discourse.
The subject in this study is a German film director, Wim Wenders. The reason for the selection was that many references showed interest in places and landscapes, sufficient texts were already available to analysis, and it was already known that many of his works had been filmed at locations, so it was judged that he is one of appropriate directors to clarify their landscapes perception in the production process.
The analysis was carried out with M-GTA, which is an interview analysis method in the field of human services. The reason for the selection was that it was consistent with the purpose of this study to enable the generation of a practical theory to explain and predict phenomena in the actual field.
In order to determine the target documents, we surveyed the websites and the catalogues. As a result, I obtained 48 Japanese books and 29 foreign books. Among them, 46 discourses were obtained from four references.
Analysis of the four references yielded 18 concepts, including five categories (Table 2). These are arranged in line with the flow of film production, and illustrated as a landscape perception process (Fig. 2).
The director's landscape perception in the production process went through three categories and a core category. First, while sorting out various preconditions, it was a stage to search the locations and to start production with an idea 〈Surroundings is the theme〉. Next, in order to capture the Surroundings, the structural form was selected in the antagonistic relationship between the image and the story 〈Lying on the form〉. A Shooting posture oriented toward conscious unconsciousness to landscape with the form《Einstellung》. In the end, 〈Embodiment of sense of place〉 appeared as the act of visualizing the sense obtained by shooting.
Finally, the landscape perception process in the production process of all works until 2000 has reconstructed to re- experience. Finally, the whole film production process inspired by the surroundings was regarded as the practice to visualize the story of the place, and we have positioned the landscape as the medium of the practice. As a result, it was shown the viewer's landscape evaluation based on the objective information was only a part of the director's landscape perception.
This study proposed the future directions of waterside maintenance through residents’ awareness of the waterside as a residential environment based on their evaluations of apartment house formed in the Tokyo Waterfront Area, where the population has sharply increased with rapid residentialization. Then, this study drew the elements of the improvement of the waterside based on the accessibility to the waterside through the factors enhancing satisfaction with it. In addition, as the maintenance of the waterside based on ‘Waterside Satisfaction, ’ this study verified the validity of the elements of improvement drawn for the enhancement of accessibility to the waterside.
1) Awareness of waterside as a residential environment
In all generations, concerning the waterside as a residential environment, ‘Importance Evaluation before Residence’ was higher than the average while ‘Performance Evaluation after Residence’ was lower than that. Through this, it was found that the waterside would be the element preferentially needing improvement of ‘Residential Environment Elements’ commonly among all the generations.
2) Factors enhancing satisfaction with waterside
It was found that the factors enhancing ‘Waterside Satisfaction’ differ depending on the generations. In Young Generation, the increase in ‘Visit Count’ was related to ‘Waterside Satisfaction.’ In Middle Generation, the decrease of ‘Time Distance’ was related to ‘Waterside Satisfaction.’ In Old Generation, the decrease of ‘Time Distance’ and the increase in ‘Visit Count’ were related to ‘Waterside Satisfaction.’
3) Maintenance of Waterside base on ‘Waterside Satisfaction’
As for the maintenance of Waterside based on ‘Waterside Satisfaction, ’ this study conducted a survey on the validity of the enhancement of accessibility to the waterside with the opening of ‘Walk-through’ that shortens ‘Time Distance’ to increase ‘Waterside Satisfaction’ and the promotion of ‘Waterside-open’ that increases ‘Visit Count.’ As a result, it was found that the opening of ‘Walk-through’ and the increase in ‘Waterside-open’ had validity for enhancing the accessibility to the waterside. It turned out that in all target areas, the increase in the average Int.V with both the opening of ‘Walk-through’ and the increase in ‘Waterside-open’ was higher than the increase in the average Int.V with the opening of ‘Walk-through’ and the increase in the average Int.V with the promotion of ‘Waterside-open.’
Conducted the following discussions based on the above analysis results.
In all households living in apartment houses in the Tokyo Waterfront Area, the waterside as a residential environment is one of the elements preferentially needing improvement, and maintenance to enhance satisfaction with the waterside is required. In addition, in the maintenance of the residential environment to enhance ‘Waterside Satisfaction, ’ since Young Generation and Old Generation are related to the increase in ‘Visit Count, ’ it is effective to stimulate the promotion of the chance to visit the waterside by ‘Waterside-open’ that places a usable waterside near a residential area. Also, since Middle Generation and Old Generation are related to the reduction of ‘Time Distance, ’ an improvement that shortens the travel range to the waterside by ‘Walk-through’ is effective. Also, through an analysis based on the Space Syntax theory, it was found that ‘Walk-through’ that shortens ‘Time Distance’ to enhance ‘Waterside Satisfaction’ and ‘Waterside-open’ that increases ‘Visit Count’ enhances the accessibility to the waterside. Especially, the simultaneous maintenance of the opening of ‘Walk-through’ and the promotion of ‘Waterside-open’ would enhance the accessibility to the waterside from all target areas.
Before WWII, port and harbor act (herein after “port act”), which regulates the use and administration of ports as a whole, had not been enacted despite of several enactment movements occurred in Japan. These movements claimed that Waterfront Zone which enables port administrations to control its usage, should be designated. On the other hand, city planning act and city building act (former building standard law) were enforced in 1920. Urban zonings of port land areas were unclear at that time.
The first movement rose in the 1920’s which was led by The Ports & Harbors Association of Japan (PHAJ). This association was established in order to establish the port act. They sent out a survey to question the necessity of Waterfront Zone to its members. Although some of the members who thought current zoning; commerce zone, which was already designated in the city building act, was enough to control the usage of port area, had negative opinions, most agreed to the establishment of the new zoning. The new draft of the port act was written based on these opinions and proposed to the Japanese cabinet in 1928. However, the legislation failed again, because most of several ministries (finance, railway, communication, agriculture, commerce) were not supportive although cooperation of these ministries was necessary.
The second occurred among the 1930’s. Under the condition of Japan gradually becoming isolated internationally, the purpose of establishing the port act had changed from organizing the use of waterfront area to creating the East-Asia economic sphere ruled by the empire of Japan. However, the enactment was stopped in 1939, because the Japanese cabinet resigned. At that time, most port areas were either replaced from aforesaid commerce zone or newly designated to industrial zone based on the standards of the city planning act.
The third was triggered by the absorption of the port bureau (of the ministry of inner affairs) in to the newly established General Maritime Bureau (of the ministry of communications) in 1943 which led to rise in momentum to establish the port act. Japan was defeated in several naval battles and needed to restructure its shipping system. In 1944, PHAJ took second survey about the demand of the port act from its members. Some members answered that the governmental authority should strictly control the waterfront areas and regulate shipping for efficient maritime freight. However, as the situation of the war was extremely worsening, it became difficult to continue this movement.
At last, none of the movements were able to reach their goals while Japanese Empire’s era. The major reasons were, firstly, port administration was divided to many bureaus and ministries and it was difficult to adjust the gap between them. Secondly, industrial zone designated in the city building act was effective to control the usage of port land area to some extent. Thirdly, the general maritime bureau realized in organizing port administration which partly replaced the purpose of the movements.
On the other hand, City planning act defined port as one of the city planning facilities and port land area was designated as industrial zone in many port towns. It was ambiguity to control the land usage on waterfront area under this act, but the zoning specific to port land area hadn’t been designated until 1950 when port act was enacted.
In the 1960s, the conflict between Robert Moses, chairman of the New York state/city-affiliated highway authority and Jane Jacobs, urban sociologist helping the residents oppose the highway, over how to remodel the city of New York symbolized the sharpening of the dispute between state and local administrations versus local community, and its turning point in highway planning philosophy. The most conflicting case was the interstate highway named the Lower Manhattan Expressway (Lomex) crossing the southern tip of densely built-up Manhattan Island, the district of SoHo. Both Moses and Jacobs had to leave the scene in 1968, because Moses resigned his post and Jacobs left for Canada after her arrest at the public hearing of Lomex. The John Lindsay Administration of New York City eventually had to accept the duty to tackle this issue. Despite several books written by eminent writers such as Robert Caro (1974), Anthony Flint (2009), Scott Larson (2013) and Jean Dory (2018), they focused on the relationship between Moses and Jacobs from the perspective of their conflicts. Therefore, it was unclear what kind of administrative actions had been taken by the Lindsay administration during the period since 1968 until Governor Rockefeller’s termination notice of Lomex project in 1971. The author tried to clarify the process between through discovering relevant public information and documents concerned with this issue.
When planning highways in urban areas, it is required for local planning bodies to reach an agreement on its necessity with the community along the route in a prospect of community benefits. If being based on the agreement, the concept of “Joint Development” to utilize the air-right above the highway for new public facilities will be meaningful. It was originally studied and conceptualized by the Federal government in 1968 as a possible clue for the highway planning. As the Federal-Aid Highway Act introduced the concept of joint development, it was designed to integrate such a single-purpose agency of highway planning as the state highway bureau with other multiple local planning bodies, in a wider prospect. The Lindsay administration attempted to search an agreeable solution to the highway problem by using this method. They started preparation in early 1969 to launch a new study scheme of joint development by the special task force of social-economic and environmental expertise.
Just prior to this planned study, the City Environmental Bureau disclosed the result of air pollution simulation of planned Lomex that indicated a highly polluted air for public facilities above the open-cut structure. When decreasing air pollution caused by heavy traffic, it could not be expected a satisfactory progress in foreseeable future because of the then technological limitation of automobile industry. The joint development became hardly to proceed. In 1969 the Lindsay administration declared the termination of Lomex with a reason as the residents opposition.
After Lomex, the Lindsay administration still tried to apply joint development to other highway reform projects, but could not succeed. Since the failure of the Lindsay Administration, all successive city administrations have avoided planning new urban highways in New York.
This study examines from the perspective of population estimation the conditions under which the population density of Dwelling Attraction Area (DAA) can be maintained from the efforts of cities that have created a Location Optimization Olan (LOP). The purpose is to obtain the knowledge for effective use of the LOP for the reconstruction of the city structure by grasping the case examples of the guidance measures and the measures to be taken outside the DAA.
The method of this research is based on the analysis of the appropriate planning documents of 157 cities created and published as of May 2019 (including the analysis of DAA area and future population estimation using GIS), questionnaire survey and hearing.
The promotion policy of the country has a strong influence on the opportunity to create LOP. The effect expected from the planning is consistent with the purpose of the planning system. On the other hand, there are many efforts that expect support from the national government.
In the planning process, there are few active public participation methods. In addition, there are many cities in the parliament that did not have a particularly big debate. Therefore, LOP is recognized as a government-led plan.
Not many cities are actively trying to form a centralized urban structure.
The ratio of the area of DAA to the area of Urbanization Promotion Area (UPA) exceeds 70% in cities that exceed 60% of the surveyed cities. On the other hand, less than half of the cities have less than 15%. Therefore, few cities have limited DAA settings. Even if the population is declining, if the ratio of the area of the DAA to the area of UPA is less than 70%, it is possible to maintain the population density within the DAA. However, in many cities, it is over 70%, and it is inevitable to accept the declining population density of DAA.
Many cities do not have active guidance measures to induce DAA residence. Under such circumstances, Maizuru City, Kariya City, and Honjo City, which have a particularly narrow DAA, actively promote their residence to the areas where urban functions should be concentrated, and the central city area is revitalized according to the appropriate plan. Toyohashi City has set up a double DAA and is actively guiding residents to a narrower area. Setting a limited DAA and taking proactive measures for it are considered effective in forming an integrated urban structure.
Many cities are planning outside the DAA with the awareness that they will not hinder the lives of the residents. As a measure to maintain the living environment in areas outside the DAA, about 40% of cities cite building a system of mutual assistance through community activities. In addition, about 40% of the cities cite promotion of community-based town development activities in collaboration with the government and residents. As the population outside the DAA continues to decline, it is an attitude to promote urban development in line with the actual situation.
In many large cities in the developed world, X-TECH Businesses, which combine technology and existing urban industries, have emerged in recent years. The progress of digitalization of all industries has made it necessary to clarify the location principle of X-TECH Businesses and construct the basic knowledge of the new industrial location theory that goes beyond the old industrial location and ICT industrial location theories. In this context, the current study examines X-TECH Businesses in the special wards of Tokyo and clarifies the location mechanism of these businesses by analyzing the relationship between X-TECH Businesses and existing industries. In addition, this study examines the new industrial location structure that is emerging in Tokyo by drawing and analyzing the new clusters formed by the rise of X-TECH Businesses on a map. Further, the study discusses the future direction of the industrial cluster policy in accordance with the digitalization of industry. The study obtained the following results:
1) The location of X-TECH Businesses has a strong Location-Bound and is strongly influenced by the concentration of the same industries. In addition, the location of X-TECH Businesses is strongly influenced by the concentration of other industries, such as traditional, ICT, and business supporting industries. Moreover, X-TECH Businesses emphasize proximity to higher education and research institutions and long-distance public transportation.
2) In Tokyo, X-TECH Businesses have a unique distribution that is different from the distribution of traditional industries and ICT industries. In addition, each X-TECH Business segment is attracted to different existing business clusters. Hence, small X-TECH clusters with distinct characteristics are diversely distributed in Tokyo, resulting in the emergence of an archipelago-like industrial distribution.
3) X-TECH clusters have a sticky nature to the region, as they enter into the crevices of existing industrial clusters and form distinctive little clusters. The X-TECH clusters serve as a bridge between traditional industry and ICT clusters and act as a “catalyst” to activate both the clusters. By supporting the formation of catalytic X-TECH clusters among existing industry clusters, one can revitalize and stabilize the overall regional economy, including traditional regional industries.
Todai-ji Great South Gate(東大寺南大門), built in the early Kamakura period, has been studied as a representative example of Daibutsu-yo(大仏様) architecture. There are many studies about it from the aspects of the style and technique of Daibutsu-yo, the relationship with Chinese Song Dynasty architecture, the construction organization of Todai-ji Temple, the achievements of Chogen(重源) and Todai-ji Great South Gate itself. Studies from the viewpoint of Daibutsu-yo technic are mostly focusing on the detail. On the other hand, Daibutsu-yo should have introduced mainly for the reconstruction of the Great Buddha Hall of Todai Ji Temple(東大寺大仏殿) as a huge building, the whole structure and its assembly process should be considered in an important meaning.
Among many precedent studies, 「東大寺南大門の構成部材—軸部の肘木と貫」by Ike Kozo(池浩三) focused on the assembly process of Todai-ji Great South Gate, it based on the Report book of repair construction (『東大寺南大門史及 昭和修理要録』). In this paper, they paid attention to the joint of shaft horizontal inserted to the column of Todai-ji Great South Gate, examined constituent components of it, made a model of it and estimated its assembly process. The result showed that the construction of Todai-ji Great South Gate was very reasonable and dynamic. In their study, Todai-ji Great South Gate was considered as perfect mirror symmetry, but an observation of crosspiece holes and wedges in this research proved that there are many irregular positions. Therefore, it was necessary to examine the type and arrangement of main components of Todai-ji Great South Gate, and to reconsider the construct sequence of column, crosspiece and inserted bracket arms (Sashihijiki)
This paper was based on an observation of crosspiece holes and wedges in field survey, re-inspected the joints and shape of main components of Todai-ji Great South Gate’s main framework recorded by the Report book of repair construction, revised their position and then aimed to restore the assembly process. The examination is carried out by the following method.
1. Examined the peculiar description method in Report book of repair construction. 2. Based on the observation in field survey, made the actual condition of crosspiece holes and wedges clear, analyzed the shape of joint, the shape of crosspiece inserted to the crosspiece holes vertically and horizontally and their assembly order. 3. Re-inspected the types and dimensions of components recorded by the Report book of repair construction, revised their position. 4. Based on the above restored the assembly process of its main framework.
The result showed that even Daibutsu-yo has some common characters with Chinese Chuandou (穿斗式), it was obvious that it has its unique assembly process, which brought up a new perspective for discussing the origin of Daibutsu-yo.
This subject discussed reconstruction of the building of “NOGI-Shrine” in Nogi-machi Simotsuga-city Tochigi. The purpose of this subject is explain about the role and the building system of the carpenter Mimura family.
The reconstruction of the building of “NOGI-Shrine” was started from 1808. it was requested because it was burned down in 1806. The completion of the frame work was in 1819, and the reconstruction was finished until 1821.
The reconstruction was suspended because of lack of funds and a bid was done to reduce the cost of reconstruction. The Mimura family planned the building of “NOGI-Shrine” for the reconstruction. The Mimura family undertook the main shrine and the local carpenter undertook the worship hall. In the reconstruction, The Mimura family divided roles and worked with pupils. The Mimura family arranged the building system to plan and undertake construction of the building of “NOGI-Shrine” consistently.
The purpose of this article is to clarify the construction process and features of Camp Crawford in Makomanai, Sapporo. It was named after Joseph Ury Crawford, advisor and U.S. railway engineer of the Hokkaido development commission (Kaitakushi). Upon the occupation of Japan, the general headquarters (GHQ) set the 9th corps, 8th army’s headquarters in Sapporo, chosen primarily because of Hokkaido’s location. Several notable cities in Japan were war damaged, hence had little facility stocks. Sapporo, on the other hand, was intact and had enough supplies. These were essential aspects in establishing the headquarters in Sapporo.
GHQ ordered the Japanese government to construct 20,000 dependent housings (DH) in March 1946. This proved difficult because building materials were scarce, so some construction projects were stopped. However, deemed by the government as essential in the Cold War due to its strategic location, Camp Crawford’s construction continued and was erected quickly in Sapporo.
GHQ appropriated the land of the Hokkaido Animal Husbandry Experimental Station Makomanai as the site. It was located south of Sapporo’s city center, about 4-6 kilometers away, upstream of Toyohira river. Jozankei railways was at the eastern side. These proved valuable to maintaining good living conditions and sanitation. Also, beneficial for swift construction.
Private contractors organized a special union to construct the new camp. The union received the contract as a single unit. This approach was outstanding at that time since it can be recognized as the initial stages of a joint venture (JV) agreement. The JV was definitively established during the 1950’s in Japan. Construction was delayed but eventually completed as supply of building materials for this particular camp was a priority. 8th army head Eichelberger evaluated it as “too expensive.” Consider though, that the camp had several facilities and covered a vast plot of land. Also, the land area for one DH was the largest among all camps in Japan.
The DH and troop housing (TH) were developed concurrently, a unique feature here since, typically in GHQ’s camps across Japan, these would be built separately. This camp’s site plan was influenced by topography and old facilities. TH and DH areas were situated in the eastern part of the site where it was dry and higher than the west. The service facilities were on the west amidst gently rolling terrain. TH was on the upper section of the site’s eastern part, laid out on a grid using the old farm road. Below it, the DH was arranged on curved roads, following GHQ standard. Several facilities were added, making the camp almost a small city.
TH area had, among others, an office, PX, bakery, church, theater, clubs, library, gym, sports grounds, and golf link. DH area had detached and row houses using GHQ standards, except for the roof material. Instead, the roof was finished with sheet iron, characteristic of the cold region, and contributing to high costs. However, the GHQ used existing facilities and new buildings were simple. The camp was generally using excellent specifications when compared to Japanese buildings at that time.
After derequisition, late 1950's, the site was transformed to the Japan Self-Defense Force Base and a prefectural residential area, Makomanai Danchi. The DH area was once used as Olympic village, the golf link for stadiums. Camp Crawford is the foundation of present residential suburbs.
J. Conder came to Japan in 1877 as a hired foreigner, was involved in the design of more than 100 architectural works until his death in 1920, and he also conducted a number of surveys and proposals for earthquakes that frequently occur in Japan, earthquake resistance of buildings, and geological surveys. However, there has been no report of earthquake countermeasures on the design surface performed by Conder. By the way, Conder made the following reference in his speech given under the title of “The Practice of Architecture in Japan” at the 3rd regular meeting of Zoka-gakkai held on July 14, 1886. In other words, in this speech, he avoids the use of the following as an earthquake countermeasure in the design of brick buildings.
1) projecting cornices
2) ornamental parapets
3) corbelled turrets
4) non-circular arches
And he used iron bands for the arches. There are four problems that Condor points out as "avoidance" in design. Did Condor actually "avoid" these points when designing in Japan? There has been no study on that point. The purpose of this article is to clarify the effects of the earthquake on the design aspect of the architectural works by Condor up to 1886, when the speech was made, and in the Meiji 20's. The following points were clarified.
In the works made by Conder until 1886, 1) cornice was used consistently, 2) there was no parapet, and 3) the turret was limited to the Ueno Museum and Tokyo Fukkastu Daisedo. In addition, 4) non-circular arches were confirmed in 10 cases, and 8 cases were implemented.
Looking at Condor's discourse on earthquake countermeasures, in the "A Few Remarks upon Architecture" written in 1878 immediately after coming to Japan, it was just a warning about the earthquake, but in "Zoka Hikkei" after 1882, he described the need for careful closeness as an earthquake countermeasure for cornice and parapets.
In Conder's work of the 10th year of the Meiji era, it was common for the tie beam to be placed on the upper part of a brick wall and the cornice was placed in front of it, but after 1892, the tie beam was placed on the cornice. With such an arrangement, the cornice will not be pushed out from the back by the tie beam during an earthquake. The timing of the change can be judged to be the Nobi earthquake in 1891.
This paper aims to clarify the actual studying conditions and characteristics of Chinese architecture students studying in Japan in the first half of the 20th century. This study uses a variety of literature from China and Japan to sort out the information of international students and makes the list containing students’ personal details, study abroad situations, post-graduation activities. Based on this list, this paper analyzes from the following three aspects:
1) Details about the Japanese schools accepting Chinese architecture students and the systems established by each school for international students.
2) On the basis of the previous section, the admission statuses of Chinese architecture students are sorted out, and statuses’ characteristics are analyzed and compared according to the studying aboard systems.
3) Based on the above list, funds sources of Chinese international students are clarified and the relationship between the study aboard systems and funds is analyzed.
According these aspects, this paper concludes the followings.
1) According to the current statistics, there were 254 students studying in Japan from 1906 to 1945. Because of the detailed and comprehensive investigation, this number is close to the total number of Chinese architecture students studying in Japan at that time. Although the numbers are hard to compare, the students who went to America were all graduates of Chinese colleges and universities. And most Chinese architecture students who studied in Japan had come to Japan after graduating from secondary education institutions in China and receive preparatory course in Japan before they received higher education in architecture. The number of 254 Chinese students shows the composition of such study abroad by Chinese architecture students at that time.
2) There are 26 Japanese public and private schools that accepted Chinese architecture students, and each has established its own admission system. Among them, Tokyo Higher Technical School accepted the largest number of students, accounting for 43% of the total. It had detailed stipulations in the setting rules for international student base on the “Student Programs in Five Japanese Universities”, the special agreement of Sino-Japan Governments and some measures by Japanese Government.
3) The statuses of Chinese architecture students include elective student, preparatory student, regular student, research student and auditor. To obtain the regular course in architecture is the main purpose of these students to study abroad. However, in public school, it is difficult for foreigners to be educated in the same environment as Japanese. Due to the difficulty of admission, most of the Chinese architecture students entered preparatory course and then regular course.
4) The sources of public funds came from the support of the governments of Japan and China. The most important thing is that the “Student Programs in Five Japanese Universities” not only provided necessary fees for Chinese students, but also stipulated that at least two students should be received by Architecture Department of Tokyo Higher Technical School every year. This is the main reason why the number of Chinese architecture students at Tokyo Higher Technical School is the largest.
Thus, the basic conditions and initial information about studying abroad in architecture are clarified.
As the continuation of the research on the People’ Commune, it has been discussed about the regional planning in the former paper, this paper will focus on the detailed architectural expression and the residential planning. Just like the former paper, the paper also takes the Weixing Commune which is the first funded People's Commune as the research object and tries to make it clear how the architectural expression was showed out in the design of People's Commune under the influence of Soviet which was the main source in the trend of thought in 1950s.
At first, through the introduction of the ideological trend of architecture around 1950s, we can find that under the ideology of Communism which somehow acted as a political issue, the field of architecture continued in the status of ideological confusion from 1950s. The designers of Weixing Commune from South China University of Technology also cannot escape from the overall situation which was the common phenomenon in China. They took lots of strategies to cater to the ideological trend. Though there was no definitive answer to this issue which was related to the problem of artistic conception, they started to focus on the practical stills like architecture construction. By analyzing the residential planning, we find that they tried to use the Soviet model to the commune. Moreover, when it turned to the detailed architecture design of the Commune Center, they implanted the elements from both the Modernism and Socialism Realism generated from Soviet, which was the dominating idea of 1950s in China. This study concluded that under the influence of concept of “traditional Chinese curved roof” which was generated from Socialism Realism in architecture, a newborn Regionalism finally emerged in China.
In conclusion, under the prevailing idea of Socialism Realism and Modernism in Architecture which run through ideology and a strong current of nationalism appeared in the field of architecture of China, architects of this case did try to put forward their proposals of the Chinese National Style and finally changed the route of design from 'Form' to 'Reality', which entirely contributed to the formation of the Regionalism in rural China through the movement of People’s Commune.
The purpose of this paper is to study the spatial structure of the hot spring towns in the Edo period (early modern period), and to analyze the rights that define that spatial structure. A hot spring town is a city with a hot spring which prospered in the early modern period. The research so far has focused on the transition period from early modern to modern, investigating mainly the spatial structure of hot spring towns. However, no research has been conducted on how hot spring towns, which existed as healing places in the Middle Ages, became cities in the early modern period. In this paper, we study the hot spring town of Arima, which has been the most famous hot spring town in Japan since ancient times. We investigated the origin of the privilege inns called “Arima 20-bo” which appeared in the early modern age, and restored their spatial structure. In addition, we analyzed the rights enjoyed by “20-bo” as a spatial structure.
First, we describe the origin of “Arima 20-bo,” which was powered by the politicians in the town and had other small inns and the Yuna who took care of customers in the hot spring. According to five historical sources, “Arima 20-bo,” was seen at the end of the 16th century, and it was the united group. In addition, they actively named themselves "bo" and once more organized themselves in the mid-17th century.
Second, we restore the city space based on the conditions prevalent in 1737, and study the location of “Arima 20-bo” and other small inns. As a result, we identify three features of the city’s spatial structure. First, division of residences between the north and south by the hot springs; second, “20-bo” surrounded the hot springs, and third, two roads extended from the hot spring, one to the east and the other to the south.
Finally, these inns were developed as per the stock associated with the land building. The three materials, "Guest shop stock, " "Yume stock," and "Guest book" were transferred at the same time the land residence of “20-bo” was bought and sold at the end of the early modern age. The “20-bo” had the right to accommodate guests, to use Yuna to guide the guest to the hot spring, and to take care of the guest.
The number of “20-bo” and Yuna in a town depends on the social situation of the hot spring town.
At the end of the early modern age, when the number of “20-bo” and Yuna decreased, the former two space structures, division of residences between north and south, and 20-bo,” surrounding hot springs, seen in the middle of the early modern age, also collapsed.
To summarize the above, in the hot spring town of Arima in the early modern age, there existed division of residences between the north and south by the hot spring, and the “20-bo” also surrounded the hot springs. Thus, the space structure is defined by the system of the healing hot springs consisting of “Arima 20-bo.”
This paper examines the formation process of the territories of villages in Kamakura in the Edo era, by analyzing “Nayose-cho,” a type of village cadaster of Ogigayatsu-mura, a village in Kamakura.
After Tokugawa Ieyasu relocated to the Kanto district, he divided the field of Kamakura into a group of villages in 1591. However, since these villages were divided into multiple territories ruled by temples and shrines, the villages had not yet functioned as administrative units. In the case of Ogigayatsu-mura, the village encompassed the territories under the control of Tsurugaoka-hachimangu, Juhuku-ji, Jokomyo-ji, Eisho-ji, and Tatsumi-kojin. At that point, the land lots of Kamakura were registered in “Kenchi-cho,” a type of cadaster made by the landlords from which we cannot tell which village the lots registered in the kenchi-chos belonged to. It took a long time for the border of the villages began to gain significance.
The administrative organizations of the villages were formed during the late 17th century, and the oldest book of nayose-chos in Ogigayatsu-mura was written in 1682. This means that people living in Ogigayatsu-mura had begun to make their nayose-chos to investigate the landownership in the village, as soon as the administrative organization of the village was formed. The village continued to use the nayose-cho of 1682 until at least 1763, by copying it and updating the landowners. Nayose-chos, made by the villagers, replaced the kenchi-chos, made by the landlords. Villagers in Kamakura knew the land ownership details through the nayose-chos. However, since the landlords still controlled their territory by collecting land tax, villages had not yet gained control of their land.
Around 1800, the task of collecting land tax was taken over by the villagers from the landlords. In Ogigayatsu-mura, the Kan-nushi of Tsurugaoka-hachimangu, who was allotted a part of the territory under the shrine’s control, adopted this method. After the lawsuit of 1791 between the Kan-nushi and the villages in his territory, Kan-nushi left the collection of land tax to each village. Thereafter, the villagers began to make nayose-chos for each year to calculate total land tax and report it to the landlord. This means that the villagers themselves administered their territory instead of their lords. However, without Kan-nushi’s influence, the territories of Ogigayatsu-mura were still managed by its landlords directly. In these territories, nayose-chos were rarely made because it was not necessary for the villagers to understand the land ownership details. Therefore, Ogigayatsu-mura was ruled by many lords until the Meiji Restoration.
In accordance with the Agechi-rei published in 1871, the new Meiji government was supposed to confiscate the territories of temples and shrines and integrate them into modern administrative villages. To put this policy into action, the land ownership of almost all the villages was examined. This was accomplished by studying the nayose-chos of the territories made around 1871. However, the land systems of the old territories still survived, although the government confiscated them. The Land Tax Reform of 1873 changed this situation. The old land systems were completely abolished, and the nayose-chos of all territories were merged into one cadaster. Finally, the borders marking the territories in Ogigayatsu-mura were removed, and the village was recognized as a single territory.
I would like to thank Editage (www.editage.com) for English language editing.
This study targets the textile wholesale districts in front of JR Gifu railway station, and it aims to clarify the forming process and the transformation of the districts from the post-war period to the adaptation of the disaster prevention zone and its aftermath.
The textile wholesale districts were established in the post-war period. The land lot of the district was developed in the late 1800s. Factories and lumber dealers were located there, but they were all burnt down by the air raid bomb in 1945. Afterwards the textile dealers came to settle to form the wholesale districts.
The first textile district there was the Marufuji textile district, which was constructed in 1950. This site was located northeast of Gifu railway station in nagaya or wooden row house style, with a number of buildings standing parallel to each other in the east-west direction and roofed pathways running in-between. Subsequently the Chuo-dori street and the Ichijo-dori street were constructed from 1951 at the former factory site northwest of Gifu station. Either in nagaya style, shop space was on the ground floor and residence on the upper floor. As part of the construction of the Chuo-dori street, the Genkin-tonya-gai or cash-basis wholesale street was equipped in the collective-shop style, along with common facilities such as toilets or kitchen.
The textile wholesale districts in front of Gifu railway station were formed in the course of the post-war rehabilitation period at the midst of densely packed wooden structures. Afterwards in 1950s, the nation-wide spread of the city fireproof movements affected the Gifu wholesale district, which was then expected to be redeveloped.
With the support of the government, Association for the Promotion of Fireproof Building in Gifu Tonya-machi was formed in 1959, and the Ichijo-dori street was redeveloped into a fireproof building in 1961. Consequently in 1967, the Chuo-dori street and the Genkin-tonya-gai were also redeveloped into fireproof style, which was conducted as a project under the Disaster Prevention Building Block Development Act. All of the buildings there were integrally reconstructed in a single building form, while the premises of the shops were inherited and incorporated into the new building.
On the other hand, the Palais Washington Building, which had nine stories above ground and two stories underground, was constructed in 1973 as part of a Disaster Prevention Building Block Development project in the area where the Marufuji textile district was located. While the first and the second floors of the building were allocated to textile wholesale area, including the shops from the Marufuji textile district, the upper floors accommodated tenement businesses of hotels or restaurants, which was almost equivalent to the present business form of commercial buildings.
In the post-war period, independent efforts of influential persons founded nagaya style wooden market in the Gifu station-front area. Autonomous cooperation of shop owners formed the textile wholesale district in the next phase. On the other hand, wooden shops districts in front of Gifu railway station were altered into fireproof buildings in the course of the nationwide fireproof movement. Regarding the cases in the timeline of twenty years, this paper detects the transitions of the business forms or purposes in the cooperation of the districts.
This study examines signage and monuments to discover how they may contribute to Built Environment Education (BEE) for self-directed lifelong learning. The site chosen for this study is Ishibashi Memorial Park in Kagoshima, due to its layered historical functions; currently as an educational park for Kagoshima’s stone bridge heritage, but formerly a battleground and religious site. This analysis is conducted using BECK (Built Environment Context of Knowledge) Charts developed in our previous study, which allows us to categorize types of knowledge presented, and to visualize where this knowledge is concentrated. The text and diagrams on 20 signs and 9 monuments are analyzed by coding phrases according to the horizontal and vertical axis of the BECK Chart. These codes were tabulated, the number of occurrences were entered into the corresponding cell on the chart, and each cell was assigned a tonal gradation with darker tones representing higher frequency. This allowed us to see at a glance which types of knowledge were mainly presented on each sign or monument.
This analysis demonstrated that technical, political, and social knowledge about the built environment appeared most frequently. The amount of textual information available throughout the park is extensive, and thus it is possible to state that the signs and monuments have potential to contribute to BEE through self-directed lifelong learning. However, some hurdles to learning were also identified. Due to its many uses over time, this site contains a mixture of historic remains, reconstructed historical artifacts, and modern facilities. These are scattered throughout, and there is no clear attempt to integrate these coherently in the overall park design. This makes it difficult for visitors to infer the relationship between these disparate elements through the information on the signs alone. Additionally, reading the signs is time consuming, and depending on the background, motivation, and literacy of the visitor, the amount of effort needed to understand all the information on display is considerable. While the potential for BEE in the park is great, whether this translates into actual learning is questionable. This is an important consideration in relation to the design of parks which are intentionally educational.
In terms of applying the BECK Chart, it was found that the original matrix label of ‘building’ was insufficient to address structures which are built, but are not buildings. This was rectified by adding the term ‘structure’ to the label, which allowed for wider application without losing the integrity of the original chart.