“Vertical slits” are structural slits, which structurally insulate non-load bearing walls from main members, positioned between columns and wing walls. Lateral pressure from concrete acts on vertical slits during deposition of concrete. There is no method other than empirical rules to evaluate rigidity and yield strength of vertical slits against lateral pressure in practice. There are cases when vertical slits fall off because of lateral pressure, forcing repair work to be carried out. We have conducted experiments to obtain the rigidity and yield strength of vertical slits against lateral pressure. Vertical slits were loaded with loads equivalent to lateral pressure from concrete. Concrete was deposited into full-scale RC columns with vertical slits. We report methods to evaluate resistance of structural slits against lateral pressure from concrete based on these experiments in this work.
Though our living environment consists of various metallic materials, the corrosion, rusting and aging of metals are inevitable. It is said that about 3% of our GDP has been used for the repair and protection measures for deterioration in infrastructures, transportation vehicles and construction sector. It has been revealed that the rust-prevention capability of a paint system has been further enhanced by the combination of lead- and chrome-free epoxy-based paint covered with water-based acrylic rust-prevention layer. Various test results are reported about the rust-prevention effect of the acrylic-rubber layer. Based on these test results, new rust-prevention theory is presented.
This paper presents the results of pile construction work for two steel-frame buildings. These buildings incorporate a method proposed by the authors in which the bottom end of a steel column is directly connected to the top end of a precast concrete pile. This method, which was developed for the construction of low-rise, long-span, steel-frame buildings, obviates the need for pile caps and underground beams. This method, however, requires greater accuracy in pile construction than is required with conventional construction methods. Hence, a stringent construction control value was specified for the work, and the outcome satisfied this value.
In this paper, properties of the original soil for wall clay are described. The properties of wall clay change with region, S(:sand)/C(:soil), mizuawase, etc. Results are as follows; 1) Property of the wall clay is stabilized by constant consistency. 2) With regard to bending, compressive, shear and tensile strength, S/C0% > S/C85%, and trial mixing > basic mixing. 3) For your reference, the compressive strength of the sun-dried brick is 2.0N/mm2.
Amplification characteristics in surface layer are often estimated by simple 1D structure for design input motions. In case of inclined engineering bedrock, it’s important to grasp effects on amplification characteristics. This paper presents the result of 2D-FEM analysis with one-side and two-side 10 degrees incline. Predominant period of 2D structure is 10 or 20 % shorter than that of 1D structure. The one-side incline slightly increases amplitude of 1D structure in the area where incident and diffracted waves interfere. Amplitude in the center of the two-side incline is larger than that of 1D structure due to a concentration of waves.
This study investigates the accuracy of eigenvalues and wind responses obtained from a reduced model of a high-rise building with a base isolation system. The reduced models are made targeting buildings above the base isolation system. The along-wind displacements at the first floor of a building are estimated accurately if the building is modeled by two or more masses system. For across-wind and torsional wind response, there are large errors in calculating the displacement with using a reduced model presented with a few masses in comparison with those with five or more masses.
S-wave velocity is needed to analyze ground response, while it is rare to observe S-wave velocity in small building. So it is often estimated from various soil data such as N-value. However, previous studies, sample data are small in number and are obtained in limited area. In this study, based on multiple regression analysis, expression that estimate S-wave velocity from PS logging and boring data are proposed and we confirmed the accuracy of the estimation formula by multiple correlation coefficients. In addition, we calculate confidence intervals of S-wave velocity.
This paper investigates dynamic characteristics of a base-isolated building affected by partial soil improvement under seismic excitation. An analysis model is made in order to estimate the behavior of such structures under seismic excitations. Comparisons were made between the results from analysis model and observed data. Dynamic properties of impedance and foundation input motion are also analyzed in this paper. It is found that the torsional response is generated due to the partial improved soil. With the increase of the depth and scale of the soil improvement, impedance shows an upward trend, at the same time, foundation input motion decreases.
In order to prolong the lifetime of seismic isolated building with lead rubber bearing (LRB), we investigate the relationship between the seismic response of the LRB-isolated building and the aging of LRB by a non-linear response analysis. For the non-linear response analysis, the restoring-force model of LRB taking in account the aged deterioration over 100 years old is developed from the experimental data. The experimental equation of the failure shear stress of LRB is also proposed. From the seismic response analyses, the aged deterioration of the failure shear stress of LRB is found to be important in the life-prolongation of LRB-isolated building.
Vertical loading tests are performed at highly organic soft ground to evaluate the piled raft foundations, in which the raft is not directly connected to pile heads. The rafts are made of reinforced concrete with 3.64m square and 0.15m thickness with 21kN/m2 loadings, and four H-shaped 5m long PC piles arranged at the corner of raft. The settlement and the axial stress of piled raft foundations are compared to those of a mat foundation and a single pile tested at the same site.
The spring-mass model which can analyze the FEM results of the rapid plate loading test was discussed. Then the following results were obtained. About the soil resistance under the plate in the plastic domain, the calculation results of the spring-mass model of Randolph and Deeks were in agreement with the FEM results. However, about settlement of the plate of the plastic domain, the calculation results of the spring-mass model increased several times than the FEM results.
One of the most important matters in keeping membrane structures in healthy condition is to maintain the proper tension distribution over the membrane. However, it is not easy to know the real stress level in the membrane quantitatively after completion of the structures. The authors proposed a new method that can measure membrane stresses in two different directions separately using sound waves –instead of measuring the membrane stresses directly. In this paper, various problems in the downsizing of measurement equipment and reduction of measurement time for practical application are examined, and clarified both theoretically and experimentally. In addition, not only the experimental tests using the membrane material of PTFE coated glass fabric as well as ETFE film with various combinations of the membrane stress, but also the actual measurement for existing suspension structure covered with ETFE film is carried out for practical use. The results verify the developed equipment can be used to continue measurement as a tool for scientifically and quantitatively determining the membrane stress which exists in the membrane material of the actual membrane structures.
Wind load is the most dominant load for light-weight structures such as membrane roofs. Particularly since the horn-shaped (conic) membrane roof has a complicated shape and is generally composed of several numbers of horn-units, the basic data for the wind-force coefficient has not been reported. In this paper, the authors focus on the wind-force coefficients under the uniform-flow. The authors conducted many types of wind-tunnel tests and clarify the aerodynamic characteristics under several conditions.
When a large-scale timber structure is designed, the development of an earthquake-proof element with large ability and the establishment of the design approach are needed. This report is a description of the earthquake-resisting system that uses the wood-based material and the modeling method. In this structure, the LVL panel is set in the frame made of the steel frame. This system brings out the maximum capacity of LVL panel. Because, steel frame transmits shear - force to LVL by a wide bearing area. This paper presents background and outline that develops this system, experimental plan and results, and structural modeling and estimation method of P-d curve.
The response of a wooden house during earthquakes is not necessarily estimated by static characteristics of house. This paper describes the evaluation of torsional response based on vibration table test of three dimentional frames induced translational and diagonal direction. The main results are as follows. Torsional response induced by vibration of diagonal direction is larger than that of translational direction. Amplification coefficient of stress based on time-domain response analysis is larger than corrected torsional coefficient or shape coefficient based on static characteristics.
For global environment to be preserved, existing underground structure must be reused actively, because domolishment of it demands enormous energy compared with that of above ground. This paper shows a rebuilding project of 38-year-old building in which new structure was rebuilt on the reused basement. In reusing underground structure, much attention was paid to balance of architectural planning and structural planning, structural continuance in the connection floor, safety of rebuilt building which had much floors than the original one and quality control of reused structure in construction. As a result, effective reduction in construction cost and environmental impact was achieved.
For reuse of existing underground structure, we have so far carried out experimental research on reinforcement of existing RC beam by increasing section. As a part of this research, anchorage performance of reinforcing bar, anchored horizontally into existing structure by the same way as post install anchor, needs to be confirmed. This report illustrates the pull out test on post installed reinforcing bar anchored to drilled concrete hole with shear keys, with non-shrinkage cement as filler. Test results show the effects of diameter of reinforcing bar, place and number of shear key and anchor plate.
Recently various kinds of free-formed single-layer latticed shell structures with glass surface are realized in Europe for covering public open spaces. The connection system for such structure requires out-of-plane strength and stiffness, and the buckling stability of such structures is affected by the stiffness of the connections. In this report, simple connection system composed of hollow-cylindrical nodes and tension bolts is proposed. The stiffness and strength of proposed connections against out-of-plane bending, in-plane bending, compression, and tension forces are confirmed by experiments, and the effects on the buckling strength of sample structure are discussed.
An index to evaluate seriousness of damage suffered from an earthquake was proposed, in which the seriousness is defined to be caused by an increase in repair cost. The index was formulated considering the effects of engineering factors on repair cost increase, ie. the amount of labor and the level of technology needed for repair work. The characteristics of the index are summarized as follows; A. The index is clearly related to repair cost and repair time. B. From the index, it is possible to grasp the amount of labor and the level of technology for repair work. C. In the index, factors in repair cost increase are evaluated from engineering point of view.
With regard to fire protection for exterior walls of a building, only ‘fire-resistive performance’ is considered, according to the current building standard law of Japan. And, fire propagation along combustible material installed at external side of fire-resistive wall is not specifically evaluated, even though combustion of external cladding could cause acceleration of the fire propagation along exterior walls, in some cases. In this study, new test method for evaluation of fire propagation along combustible cladding, was proposed and also, test specimens produced referring to façade wall with exterior thermal insulation were burned in order that the application of the method is demonstrated.
Although timber is a combustible material, the char layers created on the surface during fires prevent further burning of the inner sections. Taking advantage of this feature, steel-timber composite (a steel plate sandwiched with timber using high strength bolts) section members were developed, expecting steel alone to take the load under fires. In this research, their 45-minute quasi-fire resistive performance was experimentally evaluated applying the standard time-temperature relationships. In the composite sections, the connecting bolts are exposed, which is not influential to the temperature elevation of the steel. The test parameters in the multiple test specimens were the section sizes as well as exposure of the side surface of the steel plates. The maximum steel temperatures in most specimens were below 350 Celsius.
Investigation of fire load in 6 school gymnasiums, 2 for each of elementary, junior high and senior high schools in Akita and Fukushima Prefectures, is conducted for the performance oriented fire safety design of school gymnasium buildings under the localized fire concept. It reveals notable insufficiency of storages for exercise equipments which results in the increase of fire load in arenas and may make the localized-fire to achieve. A guideline has been proposed to prepare sufficient storage spaces in school gymnasium buildings.
In general, end reflection loss value of duct for ASHRAE is used as the acoustic design data of the air-conditioning system. However, the theoretical calculation is not described in ASHRAE Handbook and also an experimental examination is not done. In this paper, the measuring method by pulse sound source for end reflection loss of duct is described and the end reflection loss values of the duct that of diameter is 200 mm are measured and calculated. These are compared with the values of ASHRAE and the differences of two on the frequencies from 50 Hz to 1500 Hz are small.
We have proposed a simple evaluation technique for environmental vibration based on soil-structure interaction. In this article, this technique was extended to cover an embedded foundation by applying averaging method with extrapolated displacements at Gauss points in depth. The method was verified by axisymmetric FEM simulation and applicability was depicted with real traffic acceleration data.
In this paper, winter thermal environment of traditional timber house was measured before and after installing thermal insulation and floor heating. After this renovation, comfortable environment without vertical temperature difference had been secured even in early morning by the combination of floor heating and air conditioner. Therefore, this technique was considered to be an effective method to repair traditional timber houses in comparatively warm area.
A field measurements of the blood pressure change of elderly with the room air temperature change during the bathing were made in winter of Sapporo and Fukui. Average room air temperatures of the undressing room in Sapporo versus Fukui were 19.8 versus 12.6 degree-C. The temperature differences between the living and the undressing room in Sapporo versus Fukui were 2.7 versus 6.5 degree-C, respectively. It would appear that the insulation performance of houses in Sapporo is higher that in Fukui. Therefore, over the 5 degree of air temperature drop between the living and the undressing room brings about a terrible rise in their blood pressure at the probability of 80 percent or more.
This paper aims to grasp the effect on heat environment control of veranda of traditional timber house by measurement and simulation of indoor temperature. The room temperature of tradition timber house veranda in winter fine day is considerably high comparing with non-heating room, so the “greenhouse effect” is admitted though it doesn’t spread the greenhouse. Therefore, if proper improvement of veranda is done, it is expected to become the effective means that gives the comfortable indoor heat environment in winter.
Evaluation of air quality by concentration of just only target compounds has the possibility of a lot of trouble. In this study, we evaluated the air quality of new nursery room. As a result, the TVOC concentrations greatly exceeded the indoor target value (400 μg/m3). Moreover, we verified various ventilation methods such as continuous running of kitchen fan, securing of ventilation routes and introduction of additional ventilating fan, and the concentration drastically decreased to one-tenth compared with opening status after 3 months. In addition, ventilation rates estimated by TVOC concentration change of PID monitor increased.
Cooling system had been installed for all metropolitan high schools in 2008 to improve indoor thermal condition and to increase learning efficiency of students. On the other hand IAQ problem may occur if windows are closed and mechanical ventilation is not operated. It is reported that low indoor humidity activates influenza virus. In this paper, indoor CO2 concentration and humidity are discussed on the basis of measured data in classrooms of high school. Furthermore, CFD simulation was conducted to study appropriate HVAC system to prevent influenza infection.
The purpose of this study is to validate controlling strategies of chemical pollution in buildings after renovation. Several chemical substances were emitted from architectural materials, and there were complaints of unpleasant odors caused by VOCs in the renovated rooms by occupants. Two types of strategies were used in the renovated offices to solve this problem; forced ventilation with hot-humid outdoor air and a chemical filter in indoor air conditioning units were applied and their performances were validated by measuring the indoor concentration before and after operation. The results show that both strategies have a significant effect on reducing VOCs practically.
We developed ground source heat pump unit that was capable of air-conditioners and hot water supply. This equipment utilized artificial waste heat generated by air-conditioners as the heat source for hot water supply. By carrying out a simulation, it was found that the air-conditioning system had high performance. As result, this system could reduce CO2 emissions.
A multi-connected complete mixing type thermal energy storage tank consists of divided tanks with connecting holes. Connecting holes should be installed to promote complete mixing of each divided tank alternatively. However, their arrangements, especially in aged tanks, are not always the most suitable, and mixing state in each divided tanks could be deteriorated. Aiming to investigate mixing state of thermal storage tank, we carried out detailed measurement in aged thermal storage tank after remodeling. It was found that divided tank with inappropriate arranged connecting holes results in thermal stratification.
We applied the DCBA method for built-up area in Japan, and verified the effect of the DCBA method for policy planning in the regeneration of built-up area. The DCBA method is a consensus building tool developed in the Netherlands that integrates environmental engineering and city planning. As a result, we shared the priority and the objective of measures between multi subjects. The effectiveness of the DCBA method application for policy planning in the regeneration of built-up area was shown.
The improvement of a building appearance, environmental and structural performance is required for an existing building as an asset quality upgrading in case of refurbishment to sift sustainable society. The authors developed an integrated facade system which improves those performances to install a buckling restrained brace and external louvers. In this paper, the authors examine unique integrated facade system which formed like a bounding trajectory appearance through design process and making detail mock up. Finally, the system is validated by not only design process but also industrial and installation approach.
Authors developed computer software for simplified simulation of thermal environment of glassed-in spaces. By using the software, this paper shows how to adjust the temperature of glassed-in spaces through the methodical analysis in different design conditions and climate conditions. It is found that the software is useful for designing of glassed-in spaces when the architect cannot empirically predict the thermal environment by changing design conditions. Besides, the software is especially useful in reduction of time and labor when the architect makes various studies and inputs many different conditions on the early stage of designing.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the feature of the business establishment that condominium is used as office. The questionnaire survey was done to graphic design office and patent office in Tokyo. The results are as follows: 1) We were able to grasp the patent office tends to choose office building, and the half of the graphic design office selected condominium as office. 2) Condominium users tend to work as an individual, and office building users tend to work as an organization.
This study is about HPOZ –Historical Preservation Overlay Zone- and its influence on the residents in the Mar Vista Tract which was subdivided in 1948 and designated HPOZ in 2003. After HPOZ designation, the HPOZ board (consisting of four members) with support from Los Angeles City became the driving forth behind its conservation. Through the HPOZ movement, the community became well developed and the residents started to take an active interest in Mar Vista. This case study provides ideas as to how to sustain Japanese suburban housing developments and to increase good quality housing stocks.
This study aims to clarify characteristics of passengers staying at the space for rest and viewing located in concourse of the stations in Kansai area. The data collected from the investigation conducted in 2008 and 2010 are analyzed from the point of view of arrangement types of chairs and their number. Characteristics of viewing behavior in front of gallery and taking over seats in the space are analyzed. It is found that few passenger visited gallery and a few passenger used the space. Finally, technical proposal on planning the number of seat at lounge by queuing theory are discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influence of building codes on conversion of closed elementary and junior high schools in depopulated areas. Some results show as follows : (1)In the past, obligatory return of national subsidy for school construction prevented closed schools from conversion, but recently such a situation has been improved by deregulation. (2)In depopulated area, there are a lot of regions where waste water purifier is used. In such a region, installation of combined treatment purifier becomes a question of money. (3)Conversion from the usage with a loose requirement for fire extinguishing equipment to a severe usage needs more advanced fire extinguishing equipments.
This research and development aims at building user’s safety in daily life for a public architectural space and also has aimed to construct the knowledge base which has accumulated the accident case, knowledge concerning the prevention of accidents, and the measures technology. In the background of this approach, the falling accident has become a problem by aging society. The knowledge base defines the patterns of the accidents, and has described the accident measures idea of the each pattern. This knowledge base has been open to the public on the Internet since August, 2009.
The purpose of this study to analyzed the psychological effects by presentation method of architecture. These presentation methods of 37 interior spaces are created by 8 presentations.((1) 1 Real interior space, (2) 8 Scale models, (3) 4 Photographs, (4) 2 Videos and 1 Animation, (5) 8 Computer graphics, (6) 4 Perspectives, (7) 4 Isometric methods, (8) 5 Plans) There are presentations that changed line drawing and color painting, and material, and the height of the eye (1.5m and 10m), and moniter, and print, and computer aided design, and free hand. There made image profile by Semantic Differential Method on 30 pairs of adjectives. This research analyzed it by 4 images from 37 presentations.
“Yamaage festival” in Nasukarasuyama City, Tochigi Prefecture has characters to perform Kabuki on the movable sceneries in the open and to set up the steric sceneries on the street. The aim of this study is to clarify how to make a festive place by the temporary architectures in a short time. The study reports the groupings and constructions, structures, characteristics each of eight sceneries.
This paper aims to create another possible street network pattern of Venice based on morphological numeric information of existing Venice. Tree structure with Canal Grande as its stem is extracted from original Venice and which branches provide statistic data of its length, its angle and its number at each node. These data are applied to create new street network patterns which are statistically similar to existing one. A pattern with straight Canal Grande is also drawn in simulation to see what pattern Venice could have, if Canal Grande should be straight.
This study aims at examining the appropriate future urban structure for a provincial small town from the viewpoint of urban infrastructure development and maintenance cost in Fuchu city, Hiroshima. Therefore, authors make 43 future scenarios of urban structure and the formulas for calculating development and maintenance cost. Then authors calculate the costs for all scenarios, and compare them. As a result, those costs are different according to arrangement of dense urban area and population density. For example, the costs are lower, if the dense urban areas are mutually adjacent and population density is higher.
Teramachi, in the central area of Niigata, includes offices, houses, shops, and Buddhist temples. The origin of Teramachi is that the Buddhist temples were assembled deliberately in a belt there in Edo era. From 1950s, Teramachi has been changed by urban developments of the central area of Niigata city. This paper explores the characteristic of the transition of townscape.
This study investigates how the ‘Mizuki Shigeru Road’ project revitalized the shopping street in Sakaiminato. Many shopping districts in local cities are facing economic downturns. Sakaiminato has successfully overcome this problem through: 1) the installation of bronze manga statues along the street and hosting related events; 2) the partnership between public administration, private businesses and volunteers; 3) the active participation of local shops in the sales and promotion of manga character events.
Jozankei Onsen District has been tried to improve environment to attract tourists, especially the local association enthusiastically worked. The paper fines the shift of the focus of environmental improvement from basic urban infrastructure to more attractive functions such as parks along with the transition of main operators of local activities to local community. It points out the necessary to make a plan of environmental improvement with longer view.
On 12 May 2008, the severe earthquake struck Sichuan province in China, which claimed 69,226 lives and injured 374,643 people. Drawing a lesson from this extremely strong earthquake, also as an important respect of urban disaster prevention, the evacuation area construction was carried out in many places in China after the Wenchuan Earthquake. Based on the collection of latest construction information and a site survey about facilities and surroundings of existed evacuation area, this report introduces and analyzes the construction condition of emergency evacuation areas in central zone of Beijing. It also discusses on some problems found in the survey.
Designing and planning cities in consideration of urban climate is increasingly important in some Japanese cities because urban thermal environments in summer are becoming severe. However, stakeholders such as local government officials, planners, and residents cannot consider the urban climate in their design and planning processes because urban climate systems are difficult to understand. Therefore, authors proposed the Urban Environmental Climate Map (UECM) for supporting urban design and planning. Nevertheless, UECMs are rarely made and used by Japanese local governments now, apparently because UECMs do not conform to actual Japanese planning systems. Therefore, the authors are trying to make UECM based on interviewing local government officials in City of Sakai. In this paper authors report and discuss about the results.
In this study, the cases of flood disaster mitigation by building regulation and guidance in urbanized area were investigated. The purpose of this study is to consider the effect and problem of each case, and to clarify the function of each case in flood countermeasure and the citizen’s role. As a result of the investigation, it was found that the effects of existing institute and method are limited for improving flood disaster mitigation in urbanized area in preparation for flood risk rising by the influence of climate change. New institute and method should be considered.