The purpose of this article is to clarify through two different perspectives the role of the Sufi ṭarīqa
s in the anticolonial and moral movement, on the basis of the ṭarīqa
newspapers. The first perspective consists on the one hand of an analysis of articles on moral and religious degradation, the proselytizing of Christian missionaries, naturalization, the teaching of the French language and so on, all of which were severely criticized by the ṭarīqa
newspapers as progressive and negative phenomena of colonization, and it consists also on the other hand of an examination of the influence of the anti-colonialist attitude, on the nationalist tendency.
The second perspective highlights first of all the political mindset of double standards of the newspapers, which castigate the conquest of Libya by Italy as well as the Palestinian policy of Britain and Israel while ignoring interior political problems, and then examines the relationship between the anti-colonial politics underlying the political stance of double standards, and the nationalist intention.
This attitude of two-facedness highlights the contradictory position of the ṭarīqa
s and zāwiya
s, as being hostile to colonial policy itself. This hidden political will was manifestly expressed by the clandestine newspaper al-Rūḥ
, which severely condemned the insurrection and subsequent massacres of May 8, 1945, and indicated that the young people of Zāwiyat al-Hāmil
envisaged political independence without ruling out recourse to armed insurrection, by becoming aware of Algerian nationalism based on the Arabic language and Islam.