By the time the average reader reaches the References section of this paper, statistics from the Alzheimer’s Society (UK) suggest that an additional 187 people, worldwide, will have been diagnosed as having some form of dementia. A combination of the rising costs of dementia care and increasing evidence that costly medical interventions seem to provide a relatively limited number of benefits, has generated a corresponding interest in a wide range of non- pharmacological interventions for those with dementia. In this paper, we present a summary of the initial findings from an on-going comparative study carried out in Japan and England. Our research design involved a series of interviews and structured observations carried out with participants, nursing staff and family members, all of whom attended a series of music concerts in Japan and England. Our initial findings suggest that musical experiences can produce significant benefits for those people living with dementia and all those involved in their care.
Undernutrition is a factor associated with care dependency in the elderly. Undernutrition means the state that a nutrient necessary to live healthfully can’t take in. This study examined the nutritional status and mental/physical functions of the care-dependent elderly living in facilities and home covered by long-term care insurance to clarify factors influencing their nutritional status, as well as indices for the early identification of undernutrition among them. I analyzed it about the Alb level and BMI to become indices of undernutrition in this study. Data regarding the actual status of 529 care-dependent elderly individuals, 369 (69.8%) residents of Long-term Care Insurance-covered facilities (facility group), and 160 (30.2%) living at home (home group), were obtained in 9 arbitrarily selected areas. Care dependency was frequently marked in the facility group, while it was generally mild in the home group. Regarding the nutritional status, there were no differences in the BMI between the groups, but the Alb level was lower in the former. The Alb level was also significantly correlated with 4 factors: BMI, mode of feeding, dietary intake, and ability to walk. On detailed analysis, decreases in the Alb level were associated with altered modes of feeding and a reduced ability to walk in the facility group, and a decreased dietary intake in the home group. These results support the feasibility of predicting decreases in the Alb level by clarifying altered modes of feeding and a reduced ability to walk among those with marked care dependency, and by detecting decreases in the dietary intake among those with mild care dependency even when the Alb level is unclear. The factors identified in this study may be new indices for the identification of undernutrition in the care-dependent elderly.
This study aimed to develop the tool to comprehensively evaluate the performance of companies employing persons with disabilities in the aspect of social contribution, based on the draft of the Tool for the Performance Appraisal of Companies Employing Persons with Disabilities in the Aspect of Social Contribution by KIM and HAN (2015).Based on the results of the consultation with the experts on the employment of persons with disabilities, the draft that was composed of 12 items of three categories has been modified to the 10 items of three categories including ❶Compliance and social norm(2items), ❷Guarantee of human right and prohibition of scrimination (4items), ❸Community resources development(4 items). In the results of the verification of reliability through the values of Cronbach's α based on the data from Japan and South Korea, the values of Cronbach's α of three categories showed the high degrees of reliability. And, construct validity was verified using the goodness-of-fit of the SEM analysis based on the data from Japan and South Korea. In the result, all the values of goodness-of-fit indices ranged within the acceptable level.
This study had two purposes; first, it aimed to clarify the problems in the definitions of developmental disabilities by analyzing the pertinent laws to them; second, it also aimed to suggest the tasks in the aspects of system and policy by understanding the current state of the field of education. Even the same disabilities are called as different names from whether they are used in the field of education or medicine; the definition of developmental disabilities needs to be unified regardless of the fields. It doesn't have to be unified with the terms that have been used in the field of education, but the definitions and terms related to developmental disabilities must be unified. For the sufficient supports for students with developmental disabilities, it is critical to improve the expertise of teachers. To improve their expertise, the teaching certificate for special needs education needs to be newly created and the curriculum that would be helpful to teach students with developmental disabilities should be prepared.
This study aimed to improve the user’s satisfaction of Community Service Investment(CSI), which conducted from 2007 by Ministry of Health and Welfare, by understanding and analyzing if CSI user’s perception of cost adequacy might affect service user’s satisfaction through Secondary analysis that conducted by utilizing the data from ‘A Satisfaction survey of The Local Social Services Investment Projects 2012’ by Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2012. User satisfaction is the most adequate index to evaluate CSI and moreover, user satisfaction can be the indirect outcome of service because CSI depends on the characteristics of people and community.In the analysis, the dependent variable is the user’s satisfaction and the independent variable is the user’s Perception of adequacy of cost. The data was analyzed though SPSS Statistics 20.0. In the analysis results, first, Users think total cost of service is adequate, their satisfaction increases. Second, Users think the out-of-pocket payment is adequate, their satisfaction increases. Based on these results of the research, it is necessary to consider user’s real amount of out-of-pocket payment and if they think it is adequate or not. However, this study couldn’t consider the real amount of money users paid because we used secondary data. In order to find out more reasonable results, follow-up research considering real amount of out-of-pocket money is necessary which considers real amount of out-of-pocket payment users paid.
TPR (Total Physical Response) can be the teaching method for the foreign language activity in the special needs education. One of the representative characteristics of TPR is that the student is not asked to respond with verbal language and they can respond with whole-body actions instead. Therefore, during the foreign language activities, students can respond with actions instead of striving to respond with verbal language. TPR method may be the most suitable method for the students who need special supports when learning foreign language and would reduce their burden during the foreign language activities.This study aimed to verify the effects of TPR method using the SNEAT by participating in the foreign language activity that employed the TPR method in special needs schools and analyzing the classes, since the TPR method would play the great role for the foreign language activity in the special needs education.
Mandatory employment quota system is a policy that obligates employers to have a workforce with a certain percentage of individuals with disabilities. This study compared the Korean mandatory quota scheme with the Japanese one. They have very similar features even though some differences still exist in details; similar levels of mandatory quotas, similar covered employers, similar sanctions and incentives, and even similar outcomes. The results of this study show that the mandatory quota schemes have a limited effect in enhancing employment rates of disabled people in Korea or in Japan. Unlike Japan, Korea has enforced the Anti-Discrimination Act against Disabled Persons since 2008 though its effect on employment rates of disabled people has not been materialized yet. Anti-discrimination acts against disabled persons are generally considered to be ineffective for increasing employment rates of disabled people. Employment services for disabled persons may be more helpful to increase employment rates of disabled people. A type of delivery system for employment services for disabled persons may be an important factor for employment rates of disabled people. Delivery system for employment services for disabled persons should be closely connected with the labor market as well as the mandatory quota system. The delivery systems for employment services for disabled persons are mostly managed by non-profit organizations in Korea. However, their outcomes are less than expected due to the lack of economic incentives and autonomy. Thus, governments should expand their roles in employment services for disabled persons in order to increase employment rates of disabled people.
The Special Needs Education Assessment Tool (SNEAT) were verified of reliability and validity. However, the reliability and validity has been verified is only Okinawa Prefecture, the national data has not been analyzed. Therefore, this study aimed to verify the reliability and construct validity of SNEAT in Miyagi Prefecture as part of the national survey. SNEAT using 55 children collected from the classes on independent activities of daily living for children with disabilities in Miyagi Prefecture between November and December 2015. Survey data were collected in a longitudinal prospective cohort study. The reliability of SNEAT was verified via the internal consistency method; the coefficient of Cronbach’s α were over 0.7. The validity of SNEAT was also verified via the latent growth curve model. SNEAT is valid based on its goodness-of-fit values obtained using the latent growth curve model, where the values of comparative fit index (0.997), tucker-lewis index (0.996) and root mean square error of approximation (0.025) were within the goodness-of-fit range. These results indicate that SNEAT has high reliability and construct validity.