This study explores what proportions of the institution residents intend to leave institutions and to live in community settings, and which factors influence their intention to leave, using a survey data collected in Busan, Korea in 2014. The results are; first, deinstitutionalization services were the most significant factor on the intention to leave.Therefore, if the institution residents are to be deinstitutionalized, the residential institutions have to provide them with more deinstitutionalization services. Second, the residents with physical disabilities or with brain lesion disabilities are more likely to have intentions to leave than those with developmental disabilities. The survey result that almost 20% of the institution residents have disabilities other than developmental disabilities shows backwardness of welfare for persons with disabilities in Korea.Deinstitutionalization of persons with disabilities is a policy for persons with developmental disabilities in most OECD countries. However, a substantial number of the institution residents with other disabilities remains in Korea. Korean governments should pursue these programs for persons with developmental disabilities as well as for persons with other disabilities; how to assist their independent living in community settings, and how to improve their intentions to leave residential institutions. In conclusion, persons with disabilities, even with developmental disabilities, should be deinstitutionalized as soon as possible. It is almost impossible for people to enjoy human rights fully in any institutional settings.
For two paper–pencil versions of inhibitory tasks that require no reading skill, this study investigated the performance of young adults with no disability. Experiment 1 examined performance on same–different tasks by 42 participants. Three conditions were administered, all of which used geometric shapes: the same (no interference) condition, which asked each participant to check the same items as the target stimuli; the different(interference) condition, which asked to check the different items from the target stimuli while inhibiting the prepotent tendency of checking the same; and the motor condition, which measured motor speed. Results showed the highest performance in the motor condition and the lowest in the different condition. Experiment 2 examined performances of 43 participants on the flanker task, which asked participants to check the same arrow as the target placed in the middle of five arrows in line. Four conditions were administered: the same (no interference) condition, in which all five arrows pointed to the same direction; the different (interference) condition, in which the four arrows flanking the target pointed to the opposite direction against it; the partially different(interference) condition, in which one of the four arrows flanking pointed to the opposite direction; and the motor condition, which measured motor speed. Results showed the highest performance for the motor condition and the lowest for the different and partially different conditions, among which the differences were not significant. These results suggest that the two inhibitory tasks developed in this study are easy to administer and useful for people with little or no reading ability. Results demonstrate that the same–different task might be more inhibitory–demanding than the flanker task.
Social service, both in name and reality, was introduced in 2007 to make more jobs in Korea, along with its budget, workforce in this field increasing continuously. Despite its growth, social service in Korea has some concerning issues. One of them is that social service virtually caters only to the poor, and the other is the limited scope of social service to care services.In this paper two solutions are suggested. First, eliminating the income standard when selecting beneficiaries so that more people can have access to social service. It can invigorate the market of social service and encourage both provider and consumer to exchange their service and demand. It can also respond to increasing social needs, and create decent jobs. Second, operating the social service in the same way as social security system. It can be more realistic, considering political and financial aspects.This study has its limitations; that it considered only the two problems mentioned above. However, this study mainly covers rising social demands caused by economic depression, low birthrate, and the aging society.
There are particular costs that lower the efficiency of providing home-visit long-term care services. These are the costs associated with the time taken to move between homes, such as labor costs and the expenditure incurred for the movement. These costs are collectively referred to here as “movement cost”. To ensure stable business operation, to ensure efficient use of social insurance funding, and to increase service efficiency, it is necessary to examine movement cost and other fixed costs, as well as all associated costs.In this study, we constructed a model for the income and expenditure ratio of a home-visit long-term care service business,- by using movement time,- and the main determining factor of movement cost, as a variable in order to investigate the influence of movement time on business performance. In addition, we conducted a sensitivity analysis by varying certain parameters to assess the degree of influence on the income and expenditure ratio.The results demonstrated that a change in the part-time worker fraction can lead to the conditions where the impact of movement time on the income and expenditure ratio precipitates a catastrophic change in business profitability . This result suggests that collective housing, which requires little movement, is a more efficient solution than home-visit care for providing local community-based nursing care for the elderly.
This study tried to verify effectiveness of treatments for children who received Early Intervention Service (EIS) for children with problem behaviour. The research evaluated the validity of treatment service in improvement of problem behaviour in the areas of internalizing, externalizing, attention and sociality, and verified differences of effectiveness between methods of treatment. One hundred and ninety seven children participated in this study. They received the treatment services from 5 different branches of H Center, specialized center for emotional and psychological treatment, which was providing EIS on problem behaviour. According to the analysis of pre-post test on problem behaviours, the treatment which EIS centre provided had positive influence on behaviours change of object children, especially Play Therapy and Art Therapy made greater improvement of children’s behaviours. These results suggest the need of continuous study and development in intervention programs related to Play Therapy and Art Therapy.
There is a need to develop a Japanese-style inclusive education model for the current inclusive education system in Japan. To this end, this study aimed to develop the indicator to analyze institutional policies and to clarify the current situation of inclusive education in Japan. In the result of the analysis, the items about the securement of the right of learn and the improvement of physical and mental independence seem to have been sufficiently improved. The other items, however, needs to be improved in each stage. In the future, the tool for the subjective assessment by experts and the analysis of the current situation of inclusive education system in Japan needs to be developed.
The effects of participating in a self-management support program for patients with lifestyle-related diseases on the communication skills of nursing students were investigated. Nursing students (n =37) participated in the program for a year, including joining in a health education program for patients with diabetes mellitus, receiving lecture on the role of nurses, health consultation and guidance, exercise guidance, and counseling. Nursing students also had opportunities to practice what they had learned in the lectures as part of the program. Nursing students also completed a set of questionnaires consisting of items measuring communication skills, social skill, and other variables, before and after participating. Results indicated that post-program scores for “recognition of needs and self-growth” factor were significantly higher than before the program. It is suggested that participating in this program was more effective in changing nursing students’ understanding of patients and increasing their awareness of communication.
This study aimed to develop the tool to evaluate the social contribution outcome of employment persons with disablilites, called as the Social Contribution Outcome Evaluation Tool of employment persons with disablilites(hereafter, the SCOET). And simultaneously, develop the index to evaluate the management outcome of employment persons with disablilites, called as the Management Outcome Evaluation Indx of employment persons with disablilites(hereafter, the MOI).SCOET(draft) is a new measure to evaluate the Social Contribution Outcome by employment of persons with disabilities based on the point of view of CSR. SCOET is formed into three regions like 「Protection of human rights & Discrimination 」 , 「Development of local resources」, 「Compliance」 and items 13. And, MOI(draft) is a new index for evaluating the Management Outcome by employment of persons with disabilities based on the BSC. MOI (draft) is configured to evaluate the outcome of empoyment persons with disabilities of four perspective.However, this is the first try to develop the tool and index to evaluate the employment persons with disabilities outcome of in Japan and Korea, so, we should be get the validity more than people who employment of persons with disabilities expert.
The purpose of this study is to develop the indicators and measures for evaluating the employment system and policies of persons with disabilities in Japan and South Korea. In addition, it ultimately aimed to present the tasks for the future research on QOL-EPAI and QOL-EPAT.QOL-EPAI and QOL-EPAT has been created via theoretical methods. As to the contents and the languages of the regions of QOL-EPAI, a professional investigation was conducted (verification of content validity). Next, the development of QOL-EPAT(Plan) has been completed based on the QOL-EPAI.However, some tasks for the future research remain about the development of QOL-EPAT and QOL-EPAI as follows:First, by using the QOL-EPAI, it is necessary to quantitatively evaluate disability employment system and policies in Japan and South Korea.Second, it is necessary to verify the validity and reliability of the QOL-EPAT(Plan).Third, by using the QOL-EPAT, it is necessary to qualitatively assess the disability employment system and policies in Japan and South Korea.Fourth, a new model needs to be developed based on the results of the evaluation and analysis by QOL-EPAI and QOL-EPAT and the consideration of the issues of disability employment system and policies.
Japan has already become the world's first super-aged society. The advent of super-aged society has increased the possibility that the elderly population may have more than one or multiple disabilities. Multiple disabilities generally refer to the state that people have two or more disabilities, but has not clearly defined yet. In other words, there is no standardized definition of the multiple disabilities in the whole world including Japan, because they can be differently defined according to the types of disabilities and pertinent laws or systems. This study aimed to define the multiple disabilities by introducing the ways to define it and trying to produce the standardized definition as Multimorbidity and Multiple Disabilities (MMD). Since the ways to define MMD including the types and degrees of disabilities may make the future for persons with MMD greatly different, they should be taken seriously. Furthermore, to respond with the rehabilitation needs of persons with MMD, the human resources need to be cultivated and the scientific basis needs to be built.
Cognitive impairment is a defining feature of dementia caused by neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease. The combination of different protective factors of healthy cognitive aging might be most promising when attempting to delay cognitive decline and preserve cognitive abilities. Particularly, the combination of cognitive and physical activity has attracted increasing interest. But there is no review on the effects of exercise, cognitive intervention, and combined exercise and cognitive intervention in patients with cognitive impairment and AD and it is not cleared what is the best therapeutic intervention for these patients. 26 studies were identified in this review, most studies assessed general cognitive state such as MMSE or ADAS-Cog. Several studies indicated negative results included exercise, cognitive intervention, and combined exercise and cognitive intervention. Combination therapy may be plays an important role in enhancing cognitive function. The mechanisms of benefit from individual and combined physical and cognitive interventions are not clear, it has been postulated that physical and mental activity may therefore have potential to improve cognitive function. More research is needed to study the effect of combined non-pharmacological interventions in older adults with cognitive impairment.
Since the 1990s, the number of immigrants to Taiwan has increased, and indigenous people have gained political esteem. This social situation, therefore, calls for an awareness of “cultural competence.” Cultural competence means that social workers respect the originality of every culture in a society. The term cultural competence has been used often in social work research in Taiwan. In order to clarify how cultural competence and related phrases have been used, I performed a quantitative content analysis of Taiwanese research. I ran a computer search to reveal the mentions of cultural competence in the research of several fields, including business, education, and social work and calculated the frequencies of how often it was mentioned (study 1). Taking the above results into account, I also ran a computer search to assess how often related phrases were mentioned in social work research (study 2). The results of Study 1 show that cultural competence has been mentioned in the fields of business, education, social work, medicine, social cultures, administration & legal, and psychology. Furthermore, the frequency with which this phrase has been mentioned in business, education, and social work has increased steeply in the last ten years. The results of Study 2 show that the use of related phrases (e.g., “professional,” “family,”“empowerment,” “indigenous,” “citizenship,” “teaching,” “evaluation,” “reflection,” and “system”) has steadily increased in the last ten years. I detect a correlation coefficient between the mentions of these phrases. In addition, there is a correlation significance between “empowerment” and “system” and between “professional,” “evaluation,” and “indigenous.” The above results suggest that the use of cultural competence has certainly spread in the social work fields in the last ten years. The concept of cultural competence may present an opportunity to greatly change social work education and practice.
The need for support for students with disabilities in university, college, and technical college has been increasing. Any post-secondary institutes accepting students with disabilities are now required to develop appropriate learning environment for them. Reflecting this need, researchers in recent years are often focused on constructing supporting systems for those students.In this study, detailed contents and characteristics of supporting systems for students with disabilities are examined based on previous research on learning support for students with visual, auditory, and physical disabilities; these subjects were chosen since the number of the students receiving higher education and the supporting rate are both relatively stable. Also, some issues regarding constructing supporting systems are discussed. As a result, while accepting those students and gaining expertise, necessity of careful examination of the following issues is implied: organizing support desk and supporting group, acquirement of certain amount of volunteers, and development of employment support teams.
This study revealed problems that volunteers have and what kind of support is needed to continue the volunteer activity by having a questionnaire for volunteers. This study also aimed to examine issues with and the support system of volunteer activity for elderly people with dementia. As a result, 45.8% of volunteers had had a problem with volunteer activity and 43.9% of them had asked advice to the member of the volunteer group. On the other hand, the volunteer who talked with the staff in charge of the volunteer when they had a problem was 9.1%.The necessary support to continue volunteer activity included "a periodical class or study session" and "the interchange between volunteers". As to the intention about the volunteer activity for elderly people with dementia, more than half the people who had had an experience of nursing care of their family without the symptom of dementia or of being staff answered that they wanted to do the activity if they had an opportunity. The reasons that some people didn’t want to do the activity were lack of spare time or they didn’t think they could do it.It will be necessary to provide proper information and cultivate the staff who can take the role as a coordinator for the support of volunteer activity for elderly people with dementia in facilities in the future. A system of volunteer acceptance that reflected the intention of the volunteers and updating of the manual is needed.
The purpose of this study is to develop indicators(Draft) for the analysis of the current status of the use of ICT in special needs education of Japan and Korea. Therefore, by using of ICT-related indicators in special needs education, and were analyzed for possible use.As a result, items were common;12 items in the indicators of Korea, item 11 in a measure of Japan, 4 items in the indicators of OECD, 5 items in an index of Canada, 3 items in EnGauge, 4 items in Quality Indicators for Assistive Technology."Improvement of infrastructure" and "ICT utilization guidance" was to derive the area from the previous item.To complete the use of ICT education indicators (Draft) in special needs education, it is necessary to verify the contents validity and reliability for each area or item. Finally, using the use of ICT education indicators in special needs education has been completed, and to understand the current state of the use of ICT education in special needs education of Japan and South Korea, is a challenge to be performed comparative analysis.