In recent years, programs aimed at relieving dementia symptoms have been implemented nationwide. In these programs, dementia patients are cared for by their family members using Takeuchi's theory. The authors have provided education for these caregivers. In the present study, we held a 6-month family-care seminar for 64 dementia patients and their family caregivers at 3 sites.Of the 141 dementia symptoms exhibited by these patients before the seminar, 92(65.2%) were resolved and 15 (10.6%) almost completely disappeared after the seminar(total: 75.8%). According to a questionnaire survey involving their family caregivers,57.8% of them felt that patients showed very or slightly favorable changes in their dementia symptoms; this percentage was lower than that of actually resolved symptoms(75.8%). Thus, the disappearance of dementia symptoms did not lead to family caregivers’ positive evaluation of symptom changes. Our findings suggest that dementia symptoms can be resolved or relieved depending on care, and that there is a need to adopt continued approaches in a manner so that the anxiety of family caregivers will be reduced, and they will recognize changes in their patients’ symptoms.
Based on the observation that the phenomena of a low birth rate and an aged population are rapidly occurring in South Korea, the present study established a research question on how to provide social services in this context and examined the “Social Service Project to Cope with a Low Birth Rate and Aged Society,” which is being implemented by each local government.The result of the analysis is as follows. To cope with the low birth rate, 17 metropolitan local governments operate various social services, such as: creating an atmosphere that encourages childbearing and parenting; establishing policies that encourage childbearing; paying medical expenses during delivery for low-income families; providing a comprehensive care package for pregnant women; developing applications on pregnancy–childbearing–parenting; building public daycare centers; and lending toys.The social services to cope with an aged society include: removing inconveniences in homes for the elderly; hiring assistants to help with the health and safety of the elderly; managing dementia in the elderly; pairing “buddies” with those elderly residing alone; building a silver town (retirement home) for the low-income elderly; creating a living space for the elderly living alone; hosting video festivals; and providing jobs for the elderly.Although the social services to cope with the low birth rate and aged society are diverse, they have limitations in that they lack a “medium-to-long-term vision” and that they do not “secure the budget” in advance. Because this problem cannot be solved within a short period, Korean society need a change in direction to establish a long-term goal and push forward the core projects. In particular, budgetary agreement between central and local governments must be drawn up before nationally funded projects related to social services are planned. Considering current economic recession and negative policy environments, we suggested an alternative social service policy approaches such as an on-line based social service market for overcoming the jurisdictional restrains, social service industry for stable and high quality service, social responsibility investment as a new fund for social service.
The study aimed to develop the Inclusive Education Support Assessment Tool(IE-SAT) in order to verify the effects of the dispatch of special needs education supporters, which has been carried out by the Government of Japan. The results of the verification of the content validity for the composition and features of this tool and the formation of its domains and items will be introduced in this article.
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the culture and arts support programs of companies for persons with disabilities and to suggest the tasks to activate those programs as the means of cultural marketing by implementing the survey on the current state of the awareness of culture and arts support programs of the companies for persons with disabilities. Based on the results of the study, the tasks to lead companies to actively participate in the culture and arts support programs for persons with disabilities in the aspect of cultural marketing were suggested. First, the companies need to actively promote their culture and arts support programs for persons with disabilities and provide the information on them. Second, for the improvement of the understanding and awareness of persons with disabilities, the culture and arts support programs of companies for them should be implemented on a continuous basis. Third, the value of the culture and arts support programs of companies for persons with disabilities needs to be emphasized by presenting their various achievements. Fourth, the studies on the culture and arts support programs of companies for persons with disabilities as the part of cultural marketing need to be continuously conducted. Fifth, the companies should plan and implement the programs that may be led to the creation of employment simultaneously with supporting the culture and arts programs for persons with disabilities.
Han, Yano & Yonemizu (2015) also developed the Inclusive Education Assessment Tool(IEAT) to understand the establishment of inclusive education system. This tool was developed based on the understanding of the current state of inclusive education and the relationship between inclusive education and special needs education in Japan. IEAT is the first tool to evaluate the current state of inclusive education system, but its reliability and validity have not been verified yet. Therefore, this study aimed to verify the reliability, content validity and construct validity of IEAT. Content Validity; When over 80 percent of the respondents answered that the tool is valid, it is determined that this tool is verified to be valid. Reliability; Reliability of IEAT was estimated using the internal consistency method. The internal consistency of IEAT was assessed with Cronbach’s α. A minimum Cronbach’s α co-efficient of 0.7 was considered satisfactory for group-level comparisons. Construct Validity; Construct validity was verified using structural equation modeling (SEM). Goodness of fit index (GFI), comparative fit index (CFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) are the suitability indices of SEM; researchers may choose which index they would use for the verification of SEM. A model is considered acceptable, when two or more fit indices are met including RMSEA. For adequately fitting models, these fit indices should meet the following criteria: GFI>0.95, CFI>0.90 and RMSEA<0.1. As the result, Over 90 percents of respondents answered that this tool is valid in all the items and domains, guarantee of rights(α＝0.848), improvement in environment(α＝0.752) and reform in curriculum(α＝0.775); GFI=0.953; CFI=0.952; and RMSEA=0.068. The validity was verified because the values of GFI, CFI and RMSEA were within the goodness-of-fit range.
Recent research has reported that the number of unemployed youth with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) or suspected of ASDs is increasing. Moreover, problems faced by youth with ASDs in remaining employed have been focused. In this study, we accessed websites of regional youth support stations and analyzed information provided by these websites, in order to understand the contemporary situation related to the provision of information by these stations. Information about the provision of support in previous cases, institutional cooperation, upcoming events and the style of consultation, among others were summarized. Results indicated that information on available consultation methods at the stations was displayed on all websites. Of the stations, 18.8% required users to visit stations for consultations. However, characteristics of potential users indicated that email, telephone consultations, and home-visits were more suitable and desirable for them. Other issues including the frequency of updating the websites and information about events for interacting with similar others were also investigated. Based on the results, we have discussed the roles of regional youth support stations in meeting social needs.
Taiwan’s social welfare system for persons with disabilities acquired its present form after two major revisions to the Welfare Law for Handicapped Persons (1980). In the latest revision to the law in 2007, the aim of social welfare for persons with disabilities was changed to “protect the legal rights and interests of people with disabilities, secure their equal opportunity to participate in social, political, economic, and cultural activities fairly, while contributing to their independence and development.” The revised law specified that after the trial period of five years in 2012, social services would be provided through a new system for certifying disabilities and a needs assessment system would be undertaken, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF), adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO).This paper investigates the impacts of this new system on Taiwan’s social welfare for persons with disabilities. The results demonstrate that the introduction of the ICF framework has created the possibility of developing social services for persons with disabilities, but there are a number of difficulties in certifying disabilities and in assessing the needs for persons with disabilities.
Palliative care has the potential to play significant role in better quality of dying and death for non-cancer patients. The purpose of this review is to determine the definition of quality of dying and death for non-cancer patients. MEDLINE (1990-2015) and Google Scholar (1999-2015) were searched using keyword terms ‘quality of dying or death’, ‘good or bad death’. In the 13 definitions of QODD, the most common terms are related to patient’s decision-making. The most common second terms are related to medical and social support. Final terms are related to psychological support. In order for the social and psychological aspects of death awareness and acceptance to take place, the dying person’s suffering should be reduced and they must be relieved of pain. Furthermore, it is rapidly increased percentages of non-cancer patients among those utilising specialist palliative care services in the countries at the top of the quality of death ranking such as United Kingdom and the United States. Unlike cancer disease, non-cancer diseases need to longitudinal supportive system. Palliative care will be effective intervention to manage symptoms of non-cancer patients and treat intercurrent medical condition is appropriate. In conclusion, QODD should be combined of psychological, medical and social support as external role and their patient’s decision-making as internal role in palliative care research.
The psychology, physiology and pathology of children with health impairment have not been sufficiently understood in the field of education. However, there is no tool to measure the psychological, physiological and pathological changes of children with health impairment until now and the current state of the classes to consider the psychology, physiology and pathology of children with health impairment has not been investigated. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the psychological, physiological and pathological changes of children with health impairment and the outcome of the classes by using the PATCHI and SNEAT. The class evaluations were carried out for one 5th-grade student with health impairment by using both PATCHI and SNEAT once a week between January and March in 2015. In results of data collection, the psychological, physiological and pathological changes of children with health impairment and the outcomes of classes at schools were measured and the tasks to be improved in the curriculum of universities for teacher education for special needs education were investigated.