This article describes the author’s research activities over sixty years as a researcher of the history of education, summarized in following five periods:
1. Graduate Student, Kyushu University (1954-58)
In this period, the author focused on the modernization of education in Korea under the Japanese rule, and then shifted attention to the educational reforms undetaken in China at the end of the 19th century.
2. Research assistant at Kyushu University, Associate professor at Fukuoka Institute of Technology (1959-66)
The author’s research interests were then extended to the early part of the 20th century, the late Ch’ing Period , with the aim to examine the process of the modernization of education, paying due attention to the social aspects of Chinese education, i.e., destructive riots by farmers to protest modern schools.
3. Researcher, National Institute for Educational Research (NIER) (1967-92)
(1) During the first half : As a research member of the Asian Education Section of NIER, the author participated in a joint research project organiezed by UNESCO on the “wastage of education” in Asia, investigating issues such as dropping out or repeating classes in primary/compulsory education. In the 1970s, the author conducted a fact-finding survey on Asian students in Japan, and another one on Korean students who returuned home country after studying in Japan.
(2) During the second half : The author and other researchers conducted four joint research projects to clarify the sources of conflicts in the process of educational exchange with Asian countries: the development and setback of Japan’s educational enterprises in China before World War II the success and historical context of educational exchanges between China and the US; Japan’s involvement in Asian education before WWII. In this period, the author also published China’s Modern Education and Japan in the Meiji Era, while editing and publishing the Collection of Historical Documents Regarding Japan’s Colonial Education Policy: Korea.
4. Professor, Fukuoka Prefectural University (1993-99)
During this phase, a joint project was finalized on Japan’s colonial education policy before WWII.Subsequently, the author and other researchers scrutinized educational journals to collect and analyze articles on how Japanese educators recognized Asian education in the pre-war period. The university authorized the author to start an academic/educational exchange program between Fukuoka Prefecture and her sister region, Jiangsu Province, in China. To accomplish this, the authoer organized a joint research team with Nanjing Normal University and conducted a fact-finding research on education in several regions of Jiangsu Province for six consecutive years.
5. After the Retirement from Fukuoka Prefectural University (2000-present)
The Study of Cultural Project for China: Development and setback of educational/cultural exchange between China and Japan before WWII” was published in 2004, as an aspect of the authore’s lifetime oeuvre. The aforementioned educational surveys in the Jiansu Province ended with the issuance of a final report published in 2005, titled Situation of China’s Education under the Reform and Opening-up Policy. Along with these publications, the author visited Taiwan on multiple occasions to collect material and edited it for the publicaiton of Historical Documents Regarding Japan’s Colonial Education Policy: Taiwan. This volume was pubulished at the end of 2019 and marked the completion of 121 volumes in 12 groups, based on 12 years of research work.
KyōikuJiron was a Japanese educational magazine published three times a month between 1885 and 1934, aggregating 1762 volumes. It contained numerous articles written by Japanese educational officials, scholars, and educators, whose content encompassed information about educational publications and literary works such as novels and poems, as well as ideas, systems, and policies. It was one of the oldest magazines of its time in Japan and was published continually for 50 years. Thus, it served as a source that disseminated an understanding of the opinions of varied groups and was influential because it made discrete viewpoints easily accessible to ordinary readers, rather than government-published work.
This paper examined the page make-up and characteristics of KyōikuJiron, and subsequently analyzed the magazine’s contents related to Korean education. The scrutiny elucidated several interesting facts. First, the page make-up of KyōikuJiron was changed to reflect educational issues and trends. Second, only a few articles on Korean education were published in this magazine; however, it functioned significantly to provide information about Korean education to Japanese readers. Third, in particular, the study observed the spread of negative images on mission schools and Seodang. To summarize, this paper could constitute as an important reference for examining the perception of Japanese intellectuals apropos Korean education at that time.
This article probes the deliberative polling adopted in the process of reforming the entrance examination system in South Korea, a social issue that was hotly debated in 2017. The author overviews the current South Korean university entrance examination system, which comprises two predominant methods of evaluation (1) through nationwide examinations (大学修学能力試験) and (2) assessment via school records (学校生活記録簿). Conflicts stimulated by the Korean government’s new reform plan became a point of friction among the divided supporters of the two methods in 2017. The continuous controversies led to the adoption of Fishkin’s model of deliberative polling on the issue. The author investigates the process of deliberative polling, citing personal experiences of attending the polling conferences and referencing materials produced by the hosts and the government. Based upon the aforementioned sources, the author indicates certain defects in the South Korean example of deliberative polling, for instance, insufficient demographic representativeness or the inadequate application of the scenario workshop model. Further, the paper argues that the methods of applying the results to policymaking should be questioned for the creation of better policies that are harmonious with South Korean society.
This paper examines the process of establishing Japanese language-related departments in Indonesian higher educational institutions in 1960s. In doing so, it focuses on Japan's involvement in two different programs and the collaboration between the two countries. The paper addresses the historical contexts that shaped the characteristics of two Japanese language education systems when Japanese Language-related departments were established at the Padjadjaran University (the center of the Japanese language system) and the University of Indonesia (the center of the Japanese studies system).
The results disclose differences in the characteristics of the two Japanese language education systems. These variances are related to Japan's involvement as is evident from the establishment of the departments. Specifically, the following findings are revealed:
(1) The curriculum related divergences in the Japanese-related departments established at both the universities began with the departments' establishment.
(2) The contexts of the institution of the two departments and the organizations involved in their operation were different.
(3) The dispatch of Japanese language and culture experts to Indonesia since the 1960s resulted in the establishment of such departments in higher educational institutions in Indonesia.
The reform of ethnic minority education in China demands curricular restructuring as well as the improvement of ethnic language pedagogies. Further, it also requiresdue concern for the qualifications and abilities of the teachers.
The development of education for ethnic minorities in China has progressed rapidly, with new initiatives taking place in recent years. However, this study aims to elucidate the current situation by investigating teacher training. Programs as the present circumstances have not yet been sufficiently illuminated. The study found, through observations and interviews at teacher training programs, that the knowledge and teaching skills of teachers of ethnic language education have improved because of new teaching methods, introduced in these courses. Interestingly, the formation of a sense of community among teachers at the training programs has encouraged a continuous enhancement of the abilities of teachers.
The process of imposing a new structure, or more specifically, the rationalization of traditional arts, is associated with fundamental shifts in knowledge and skill development, which cannot always be harmonized with historical practices. This paper focuses on Cambodian Court Dance (robam preah reaj trop) to illuminate the aforementioned dynamics as they unfolded during a 2-year interlude between 1927 and 1929. During this period, the Royal Palace-based residential learning community for court dance was brought under the aegis of the French colonial École des arts Cambodgiens. At the time, dancers and instructors were abruptly moved into a school-based system with an ensuing curriculum and instructional changes. The paper also examines how the “rationalization” of performing arts education maintained the technical educational elements, such as dance techniques and postures, but undercut the socialization that facilitated apprenticeship education (geidoteki totei kyouiku), which had, for centuries, been a key feature of the community and self-identity of the palace dancers. The study contemplated the underestimation of the importance of apprenticeship within a residential dance community as a learning experience that could inform future reorganizations of Cambodian traditional dance, with apprenticeship perpetuating its functions as a critical feature of dance education in Cambodia.