This article considers the characteristics of the Japanese Empire’s food culture among the colonial empires of world history. It points out that Japanese people have a strong interest in colonial cuisines, such as “Taiwanese cuisine,” “Korean cuisine,” and “Manchurian cuisine.” While Korean cuisine sometimes became an expression of nationalism in the colony, Taiwanese cuisine and Manchurian cuisine were mainly promoted by Japanese colonists. This article considers the whole picture of Manchurian cuisine, in particular, for the first time. In addition, Crown Prince Hirohito (later Emperor Shōwa) tasted Taiwanese cuisine in Taipei in 1923 and food from the Chinese continent in Tokyo on New Year’s Day in 1940. These meals are interpreted as political ceremonies symbolizing the integration of the Japanese Empire.
This study examines the estate of tanner İbrâhîm bin ‘Alî and its inheritance in eighteenth-century Istanbul from a social historical perspective. It enhances our understanding of the lives of workers and features of guilds in early modern Ottoman cities. First, I overview the state of İbrâhîm’s estate at the time of his death and process of its inheritance by analyzing his probate inventory (tereke). Second, I compare these data with the relevant details of forty-four other retailers and artisans who lived in Istanbul. Subsequently, I analyze the status of İbrâhîm’s property, his outstanding expenses, and debts owed by and to him in detail. Finally, I examine the court cases on his inheritance according to four relevant court records (i‘lâms). My analysis reveals the relative affluence of İbrâhîm and the significant involvement of other tanners in determining the inheritance of his estate.
Zayn al-Dīn Abū Bakr ibn Muzhir was one of the most prominent bureaucrats of the late Mamlūk period. It is worth noting that during the financial crisis of the fifteenth century, Zayn al-Dīn maintained the highest authority as an administrator for a considerably long time. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between Zayn al-Dīn and his contemporary scholars, who were an important part of his horizontal networks. Most of them described Zayn al-Dīn as a virtuous, ideal bureaucrat; however, historical facts reconstructed by al-Biqāʻī’s chronicle are in great discord with the image of Zayn al-Dīn narrated by many historians. Zayn al-Dīn’s charitable projects for scholars not only extended his influence by gaining the scholars’ support and controlling them at the same time but also functioned as an investment from a long-term perspective, to pass down his positions, wealth, and human networks to the next generation. Al-Biqāʻī’s letter to Zayn al-Dīn, written after the controversy of Ibn al-Fāriḍ, reflects his wide authority over personnel affairs. His acquisition of an exceptionally long period of service could be attributed to his vertical and horizontal networks, based on the exceptional scale of his patronage as a civilian bureaucrat of his time.