NAFTA brought integration of hog production between the United States and Canada despite the international border. By relying on exports, Manitoba Canada has been expanding its hog industry since the mid-1990s to a degree more than traditional areas of hog production such as Quebec. In the late 1990s, hog prices in the United States dropped sharply and the export, of Canadian-hogs to the United States began to decrease. But it is interesting that the export of feeder-pigs continues to increase despite the price decline. Macro economic factors, especially'depreciation of the Canadian dollar against the US dollar, promoted the expansion of Canadian hog production. But it is also notable that the export of feeder-pigs has continued to increase even while the Canadian dollar has appreciated against the US dollar in the late 1990s. This reveals how structural change taking place inside the US is linked to structural changes of the Canadian hog industry.
It is well known that Japan has taken up food safety as an important issue. As Japan continues to import vegetables from China in large amounts, it is important to note the movements in export cropgrowing districts in China with regard to pesticide residuals. This paper elucidates these movements in the management of a Chinese vegetable cultivation area for export to Japan. The research analyzed J and Z vegetable exporters, clarifying that strict safety controls are difficult due to the fact that while public management is strengthening in China, the pressure for reducing costs is severe. Unless this pressure is eased the possibility that this problem will continue is high.
Wholesale markets for marine products in fisheries areas provide two important functions. First, they provide a stable supply of quality marine products to local consumers. Second, they ease the contingency of sales and form prices immediately and appropriately. Present Japanese fishery policy integrates wholesale markets in fishery areas to strengthen the first function. Fish catches in the inland sea coast area are small and varied. As a result, many small-scale wholesale markets in those areas do not provide the first function. However, those wholesale markets do provide the following functions. First, they commercialize these small and varied fish catches. Second, they operate as a site where the small fish trader or fish seller in the community can buy a limited amount of fish, forming an important sphere of local circulation. Third, they provide a circulation route for local fish, thereby maintaining the gastronomic culture in the community. The means by which wholesale markets are currently maintained in order to strengthen the first function has the danger of disregarding these functions of the wholesale market in the community.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the domestic frozen-vegetable import market moving into the period of maturity from the growth phase. Taking the viewpoint of product life cycle theory, the paper analyzes three points! sales figures, selling price, and cost. The trend of import value reveals the development importer's purchase price. The research shows that the import value is beginning to stagnate as of 2002. Analysis of sales amount reveals that domestic selling price for three development importer companies showing that after 1998, the prices of almost all items were falling dramatically. Regarding cost, analysis clarified that cost was falling for almost all items from the growth phase to the period of maturity assumed in this paper. These results show that the frozen-vegetable import market in Japan has reached the period of maturity.
In recent years, optical sensors which can measure internal quality, such as sugar content, have spread quickly throughout fruit shipper's unions. With this, the influence of optical sensors on fruit prices has become an important question. This paper clarifies the influence of optical sensors on fruit prices through a case study of the first agricultural cooperative to introduce optical sensors and start sugar content grading on peaches. With the introduction of sugar grading, there was a high price boost effect for the agricultural cooperative. However, overall prices of peaches have been declining after the mid-1990s, meaning the price boost effect of sugar content grading has been reduced. After the mid-1990s, many fruit shipper's unions introduced optical sensors and started sugar content grading, meaning that the supply capacity of the high-class fruit possessing high sugar content, which had been the main factor of the high price boost, has become excessive. In response, the case study agricultural cooperative has tried to ship peaches in various package forms in order to create alternative demand for high-class fruit. As the spread of optical sensors through the industry has made it possible to ship based on internal quality for fruits for all shipper's unions, it is essential for the unions to achieve higher marketing capability than previously necessary.
This paper clarifies the formation of an export-oriented vegetable producing area in Dalat Highland, Vietnam, through analysis of the raw material procurement system by "Green Home", one of the five processing enterprises. Since its establishment in 2002, Green Home has processed and exported frozen vegetables, spinach and green soybeans, rapidly expanding its scale of sales. The frozen spinach price is ten percent higher than the Chinese price, and this advantage covers the freight cost disadvantage relative to Qingdao, the main producing area in China. Raw vegetables are produced on three Green Home farms (47ha) and one hundred contract farms (103ha). The Raw Materials Section staff make rounds to each farm once in ten days, with Green Home also inspecting for pesticide residue and instituting a trace-back system. However, such quality control levels are looser in Dalat than in Qingdao. Furthermore, land productivity in Dalat is not necessarily sustainable, due to consecutive planting of the same vegetable. These problems must be resolved in order for Dalat Highland to develop as a frozen vegetable producing area.
This paper assesses the prospects of China developing strawberry producing areas through a case study in a village where individual farmers have chosen to produce the strawberries and have independently set up a fixed selling routine directed toward distant cities. The management is mostly carried out through family labor, while the sellers, who own 2-3 Mu of land, are the original farmers, differentiated from the more specialized producing farmers.
A banana enterprise has developed in the Hainan province of China. The system of corporate management implies two meanings. One, the entry of the enterprise activates the region. The farm village has made the tenancy rate from the enterprise an income which has vitalized the farm village. However, the enterprise borrows land from a government-owned farm and has produced wasteland in the farm village. Second, corporate management has been able to reduce costs by unifying management of the farm. The enterprise can also reduce indirect expenditure, which increases earnings. The problem of corporate management in the case study is as follows. The Chinese banana market is not sufficiently mature and price oscillations are very large. New entries into the market increase when large incomes are available, but market withdrawals soon follow when earnings are low.
Trends toward exporting farm products are spreading in Japan. Yams produced by H agricultural cooperative association of Nagano provide an example of this trend. The yams are exported to Taiwan by corporate exporter A and Taiwanese corporate importer N. The export of yams has the following characteristics. Plural companies intervene in the export process. Export-prices are the same as domestic selling prices. A small domestic market with limited domestic demand makes possible price adjustments. The following problems are left for export business. Imitations of Japanese yams appear, meaning that exports can no longer sell at the price needed to maintain their business. In that case, it becomes difficult for an exporter to get the price from an importer and the quantity of export increases with a decrease in export price.
This paper examines the relationship between cooperative members' concerns about food security issues and beef consumption. On the basis of a poll among members of the Tohto cooperative, it was found that half of the respondents are purchasing beef at the co-op (users), and the rest are not (nonusers). Users are more conscious of food safety issues and they have greater trust in the co-op. Therefore, it can be said that co-op members are more conscious of food safety issues than non-coop users and this paper revealed this gap between users and non-users.
The import of plums plays an important role in the plum processing industry of Japan. Through the activity of a Taiwanese enterprise and a Japanese enterprise, large quantities of plums are imported from China. Based on analysis of the activities of K company, this report clarifies plum import activity and the problems associated with it. K company supports the development of a plum production area and a processing enterprise in China which provides a supply of plums suitable for the demands of K company. Addressing the current decline of farmer's will to produce plums is needed for the plum import of K company in the future. In addition, to import the plum that K company seasoned from China, new guidance to the processing enterprise in China is needed.