This article analyzes the causes for the gradually decrease of supply quantities of organic products based on the studies taken from 11 organic production enterprises in Yang County, Shaanxi Provence,China. The findings revealed that even though organic enterprises held a positive attitude towards organic agriculture production, they are mostly realizing no or small profits. The study determined that the current agricultural policy system in rural finance, financial project applications, regional marketing strategies, as well as the intensive use of agricultural land through intermediary for public welfare and agricultural technology popularization system are incomplete, which have limited support for the growth of organic production marketing enterprises. The article proposes that future organic agricultural product market research should start from the point of view of agricultural policy.
Dairy farming operations in China are mostly small scale and lack funds and facilities. After milking mechanization developed, private milking businesses appeared, providing milking service for charge for farmers who have no milking machine. To strengthen the raw milk procurement system and make it traceable, dairy processors have started vertically integrating such private milking stations. In some cases, the processors even promote contract farming with farmer cooperatives which includes the milking process. Meanwhile, the establishment of large scale dairy farms operated by processors or the private sector has become common. In major existing studies, the vertical integrated raw milk distribution initiated by dairy producers in China has been assessed as an effective way to improve not only the quantity and quality of raw milk but also the income of dairy farmers, as long as the processors keep monitoring the whole supply process with responsibility. But the rapid expansion of dairy industrial capital investing in raw milk production and distribution also could create negative impact on dairy farming section. This study aimed to identify the problems of dairy processor and raw milk producer under the current milk business condition. Toward this objective, four research tasks were undertaken. First, raw milk distribution in China were analyzed using existing literature sources, which provides an understanding of past research. Second, dairy production development in China was surveyed from a historical aspect, which confirmed that the change of farming section was strongly influenced by the evolution of dairy industry. Third, the raw material procurement structure for processors was examined by studying cases from a field survey. Fourth, the impacts from the current raw milk procurement structure were assessed.
The purpose of this study is to grasp and evaluate the process and consequence of the 2013 CAP Reform, through which prediction of the future of the CAP reforms can be based. First, we presents a survey of the history of CAP Reform since 1992 and identify its basic direction. We find that it is on a trajectory of market-oriented policy, by deepening decoupled payment and shifting budget of pillar 1 to pillar 2. Second, we compare and examine the original plan of the 2013 CAP Reform versus the final plan. The point of the reform is greening, which means strengthening the agro-environmental scheme of pillar 1 rather than pillar 2 in order to maintain direct payment whose origin was as compensation payments when the 1992 Mcsharry Reform introduced. It will take much time to dissolve the difference of payment level among member states. According to the final plan, the budget share of recoupled payment increases and redistributive payment is established. We may be able to say that the 2013 CAP Reform has an option to boost small and medium farmers, especially family farming. Finally we observe the trends of policy implementation of UK and France. The former is planning to improve and enhance agro-environmental scheme more than ever. The latter will introduce redistributive payment to protect livestock farming and hilly and mountainous areas. Renationalisation of CAP will be bolstered by this reform. The purpose of this study is to grasp and evaluate the process Reform, through which prediction of the future of the CAP a survey of the history of CAP Reform since 1992 and identify a trajectory of market-oriented policy, by deepening decoupled 1 to pillar 2. Second, we compare and examine the original final plan. The point of the reform is greening, which meascheme of pillar 1 rather than pillar 2 in order to maintacompensation payments when the 1992 Mcsharry Reformdissolve the difference of payment level among memberbudget share of recoupled payment increases and redistributive able to say that the 2013 CAP Reform has an option to boost family farming. Finally we observe the trends of policy former is planning to improve and enhance agro-environmental will introduce redistributive payment to protect livestock farming Renationalisation of CAP will be bolstered by this reform.
In the small Islands of Nansei Shoto, farmers seek the production of vegetables which have high land productivity because it is difficult for them to expand the cultivated land area. But the turnover of vegetable items is large and the growing districts have not been established in the islands because of the susceptibility of climate and market and the disadvantage of the transportations. The purposes of this paper are to describe the characteristics of the production and distribution of taroes and to clarify the shipment behavior of farmers in Yoron island. The difference of the positioning of taro in farm income affects the shipment behavior of farmers: if the share of taro accounts for large portion of the agricultural income, farmers choose a high price means of sorting and shipment time. However, if the share accounts are low, they choose lower price means of sorting and shipment time. Since farmers can choose the means of sorting and the long-term harvesting period maintains a high price of taro, the different types of farmers can ship taroes for many years.
This study focused on the problem of food leftover waste. A case study of a South Korean institution was undertaken from the point of view of the food waste reduction capability together with public hygiene and culinary culture. It was shown that South Korean meter-rate based charging system and recycling system are politically unified by the framework of Comprehensive Countermeasures of Food Waste Reduction Institution. Further, it is clear that a positive effect was brought about in the management not only in public recycle facilities but also in private facilities.
Moreover, it was shown that the checks and publicity by the NPO organizing the “MATTABI CAMPAIGN” (to eat food thankfully) were also a success factor in this management. South Korea's experience has shown that institutions can promote the integration at a national level by implication.
Abstract:In this paper, we confirm the efforts in direct trading of fresh produce by agricultural cooperatives and farm corporations in a producing area, revealing the requests, compliance and evaluation on the trade practices from retail companies. Direct trading of fresh produce between agricultural cooperatives or farm companies and retail companies has increased with the increased numbers of cooperatives and companies. However the trade practices of fresh produce are limited to the discount request for special sales and the fee for distribution center compared with that between food processing companies and retail companies. As background, discount for special sales is considered because it is an inherent practice for transactions compared with the fee for distribution center that is an extrinsic practice for transactions. Comparing the agricultural cooperatives and agricultural production corporations, the latter has more requests regarding trading practices, and it has been some sort of correspondences, however they don’t view it as a significant burden on trade practices.