In thisfind decade and towards theendof 20th century, a number of satellite sensors capable of providing
data on radiance from the sea surface are destined to be launched, enhancing opportunities of synoptic
observation in the coastal zone. Japan is now at a stage of launching a sensor as well as planning of data
reception from relevant sensors. This paper discusses some of the key factors in view of full utilization of
coastal zonecolorremotesensing in Japan. Firstly, a peculiarity of the regional atmosphere which may lead
erroneous satellite estimate is indicated. Secondly the paper introduces the concept of dominant spatial
scales in the marginal seas of Japan which will help interpreting satellite-derived information field. The
paper also attempts to provide the technical concepts which may underline the efforts in bridging the gap
between the informationsource and targets.
The variation of concentrations of elements with growth in the calcitic outer shell layer of Mizuhopecten
yessoensis (Jay), living in Mutsu Bay, northernJapanwas for the first time presentedin detail.The variation
was clarifiedfor the contentsof elevenelements： Li, Na, K, Mg,Sr, Ba, Fe, Mn, Al,B and P.
The variation patterns make to divide the elements into the following four groups： (1) magnesium,
strontium, barium, iron and manganese； showing the seasonal variation pattern. These are occupied in the
lattice sites in the calcium carbonte's crystal. (2) lithium and sodium; showing the seasonal variation, pattern
with reverse pattern for the former group. These are associated with inclusions and/or organic matrices. (3)
aluminium, pottasium and phosphorous； showing a random variation pattern. These are originated from
foreign detrital grains. (4) boron； showing no seasonal variation pattern and partially high content Boron
may be exsited as an other phase with small garains.
The difference among these variation patterns originates in the difference of phase within shell. The
variations of the firstand secondgroupscan beexplained by ”optimum condition model” proposed herein.
A study of fish scale, along with otolithes, backbones and other hard parts,yields
ecological information such asthe source river, the rate ofgrowth, aswell asthe fish age.
Consequently, the analysis ofscale pattern has been widely used to determine the fish age
and their stock origins.
In the present paper, an analytical method ofdetermining the stock discrimination ofchum
salmon caught from different origins using scale patterns is developed.
The analysis has been made by utilizing an auto-correlation coefficient and power
spectrum as a function ofthe circuli number.The authors employed a a^scriminant function
incorporated with power specialized values of amplitude of circuli pattern data as
Fish from four different rivers were grouped with an averageaccuracy of 88 %.Thescale
samples used in the analysis were collected from four rivers (RTokachi in Hokkido, R.
Anadyr in Russia, R. Yukon in Alaska andR.Fraser in Canada.)
( keywords: chum salmon, scale pattern, circuli pattern, stock origin, spectrum analysis,
Hard tissues such as fish scale and otoliths are continuouslydeposited from fish birth to
its death. Therefore hard tissues are recording information that fish experienced. In order
to investigate the infomation, scale circuli and trace elements in otoliths of red sea bream,
Pagrus major, were analyzed. Scale circuli werecountedto investigate a relationbetween
circuli deposition and temperature. Trace element concentration were analyzed by
Particle Induce X-ray Emission (PDOE). These studies showed that there were some
relations betweenhard tissuesformation and ambientseawatertemperatures.
Ocean wave image data obtained by ERS-1/AMI (image mode) are analyzed in this study. Ocean
wave directional spectrum and other ocean wave parameters are derived by using fast Fourier
transform (FFT) and a series of modulation transfer function (MTF) corrections. The instrument
modulation transfer function (IMTF) is estimated by the least square fit method in the range and
azimuth direction separately. The significant wave height is estimated based on the azimuth smearing
effects and compared with buoy data. Finally the integral of ocean wave directional spectrum derived
from ERS-1/AMI data is compared with buoy data and the results of numerical predication. The
difference of the spectrum in the high frequency range are considered to be due to the azimuth
attenuation or noise removal during data processing.
The possibility of reconstructing Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) when the sea surface is masked by clouds
from the satellite sensor in aNOAA/AVHRR image by asuccessive correction method is investigated. The
reconstruction is carried out after adding artificial clouds to acloud-free image. Two methods of masking
SST data by addying artificial clouds to an image are chosen in the present study. In the first method, the
shape of an artificial cloud is assumed to be acircle. In the second method, that is assumed by simulating
cloudy regions in other images. The resulting SST field detected appears to be similar to the SST field in the
original image. Even though the present methodology is quite simple, the results obtained are encouraging.
Aquatic microorganisms are thought to indicate environmental conditions of their
habitats. Both microbial biomass (standing stock) and microfloral composition are
closely related to the degree of aquatic pollution such as eutrophication, and to the
trophic structure of aquatic biological communities. This article briefly reviews the
use of microorganisms as environmental markers to characterize thier natural habitats,
taking examples from: (1) eutrophication gradients in coastal waters; (2) hydrothermal
plumes; and (3) a deep-sea biological community associated with whale skeleton.
Among the microbial environmental markers, the applicability of fatty acid analysis
that suggests the possible in situ microbial activity is discussed.
In order to analyze the water quality, especially COD, T-P and T-N of Tokyo Bay in
summer, the hydrodynamical and ecosystem coupled model we have developed was
applied. The stationary state results could be obtained over 100 days time integration. For
the phytoplankton abundance, COD,T-P, T-N, and inorganic nitrogen concentrations, the
model could reproduce the realistic values except an inorganic phosphrous concentration
whenwe adopted phytoplankton cellcomposition ratio (N/P ratio by weightin the model)
to be 14in place of 8. The discrepancy could not be improved, even if we gave 10times
larger phosphrous relaese rate from the sea bottom than standard rate. It maybe improved
if weconsider the cell quota mechanism or different decomposition rate of organic matter
for nitrogenand phosphrous.
The DOC concentrations in the model showed lower values than the ones in the
observations. It was implied that when the lowerdecomposition rates of DOCand POC,
and changing the POC/DOC ratio in the loading from land were considered, the
discrepancy could be reduced.
The zooplanktonbiomass distribution showed the influence of fresh water distribution, that
is, theinfluence of zero value attheriver boundary. The dominance of physical processes
such as diffusion and advection compared to biological processes such as zooplankton
growth rate couldbe plausible reason. In phytoplankton case, suchproblem does not occur
because of biological processes dominance (high turnover rate).