Analytical Sciences
Online ISSN : 1348-2246
Print ISSN : 0910-6340
ISSN-L : 0910-6340
Volume 7 , Issue Supple
Showing 151-200 articles out of 465 articles from the selected issue
  • Yoichi HARADA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 557-558
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have developed a new sequential ICP-AES with the main goal of automation and faster analysis, with a secondary goal of higher wavelength resolution.
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  • QINHAN JIN, HAFQI ZHANG, AIMIN YU, YIXIANG DUAN, XIAOJING LIU, FENDI W ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 559-562
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Some fundamental studies on the newly developed analytical source---microwave plasma torch (MPT) were carried out. The computed tomographic study of the source showed there was a central channel low in the discharge and the most favorable analytical zone is between 5 to 10mm above the top of the torch. Studies on electron temperature, electron number density, gas temperature, excitation temperature and ionization degrees of selected elements in the discharge showed the source deviated substantially from local thermodynamic equilibrium.
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  • MASATO NAKAMURA, TAKEHIKO KITAMORI, TSUGUO SAWADA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 563-564
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The plasmadynamic laser emissions were measured for polystyrene ultrafine particles of 0.04-0.3μm in size and some kinds of other materials. Plasmadynamic lasing intensity depended on particle size. The lasing lines of carbon and sodium were observed in the laser breakdown plasma emission of polystyrene and bismuth sodium trioxide particles in water.
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  • HIDEAKI KOIZUMI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 565-570
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The author has been studying the application of the Zeeman effect to spectroscopic analyses, because the Zeeman effect gives additional specificity by utilizing the magnetic quantum number selection rules. The author and his colleagues started with the development of Zeeman Atomic Absorption(ZAA), then developed Tunable Atomic Line Molecular Spectroscopy(TALMS) and now are studying Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI), Through these studies a simple methodological structure in analytical chemistry has been found. This structure goes beyond the conventional idea of analytical chemistry, and leads to the concept of analytical science. The author would like to propose a conceptual structure for “Analytical Science”
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  • MINORU SUEKI, SANDRA S. EATON, GARETH R. EATON
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 571-574
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two-dimensional spectral-spatial electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging was used to measure the spatial distribution of p-phenylenediamine radicals that were generated electrochemically in the EPR cavity. The multi-line EPR spectrum obtained from a spectral slice through the image was in good agreement with the non-gradient spectrum. A spatial slice showed that the radicals were localized in the vicinity of the working electrode.
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  • Satoshi Kawata, Mamoru Hashimoto
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 575-576
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A multichannel Fourier-transform spectrometer in infrared was developed with birefringent interferometer with a Savert's plate and a infrared CCD with 4096 elements. The optics and the system configuration are described, and some experimental results of infrared spectrum measurement are shown for standard samples and an infrared radiation source. The resolution attained by the present system is -27.6cm-1 between 5000-2000cm-1
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  • HIDEKI HASHIMOTO, YUTAKA IIDA, HIDEO SAISHO, HIROSHI NISHIOJI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 577-580
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method for simultaneous multi-element determinations of trace concentrations in liquid samples is described. This method is based on total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using synchrotron radiation. The sample preparation and calibration procedures are simple, requiring some calculations to obtain quantitative values using the linear relation between fluorescence intensity and concentration. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by the analysis of the synthetic sample and NIST SRM 1643b.
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  • NOBUYUKI YAMAMOTO, HIROMICHI HORINAKA, YOSHIO CEO, HIRO-O HAMAGUCHI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 581-584
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Single crystal AgGaSz filter has been applied, for the first time, to easy Raman Spectroscopy. It can be operated both as narrow band-pass and band-elimination filters near at 499nm with about 5nm half width. By a rejection potential of Rayleigh scattering light by more than tree orders, both Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering light are easily measured using the filter and a single monochromator through a single continuous scan.
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  • MITUGI SENDA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 585-590
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions can function as the electrode surface which responds selectively to specified ion(s), that is, as the ion-selective electrode(ISE). Both amperometry(or voltammetry) and potentiometry can be used. The amperometric ISE gives the current response which is proportional to the concentration of ion(s); whereas the potentiometric ISE gives the potential response which changes linearly with the logarithm of the activity of ion. Ion sensors based on the amperometric ISE are described.
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  • TAKASHI KAKIUCHI, MITSUGI SENDA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 591-594
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Transfer of Ba2+ ion facilitated by dibenzo-18-crown-6(DB18C6) has been studied at the nitrobenzene(NB)/water(W) interface by using cyclic voltammetry. When the concentration of Ba2+ in W(WCBa) is much higher than that of DB18C6 in NB(NBCDB18C6), the cyclic voltammograms reveal typical reversible wave of ion transfer caused by forming 1:1(metal to li and) complex in NB. When we NcBa_??_ NBcDB18C6, the dominant species carrying the current across the interface is 1:2(metal to ligand) complex. The stability of 1:1 and 1:2 complex in NB are log10K1=9.6 and log10K2=2.4, where K1=[ML]/[M][L] and K2=[ML2]/[ML][L] When NBcDB18C6<0.5mM, the distortion of the cyclic voltammograms due the 1:2 complex formation is small but becomes significant when NBcDB18C6>1mM.
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  • TOSHIHIKO IMATO, H. JANE JOHNSON, GEORGE P KREISHMAN, WILLIAM R. HEINE ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 595-598
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A catechol sensor based on a polymer-modified graphite electrode has been developed. Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PNVP) membrane was coated on the surface of a graphite electrode by immobilizing PNVP with gamma radiation in the presence of N-vinylpyrrolidone monomer The response of the sensor to catechol was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic peak currents as response signals of the sensor-ere proportional to the concentration of catechol from 10-5M to 10-3M. The response time defined as the time required for the current to reach 90% of its maximum value was about 15min. The peak current was enhanced about 2 times compared to the bare graphite electrode. The sensor responds selectively to catechol by 2.2 times higher than ascorbic acid. The origin of enhanced sensitivity and selectivity was evaluated by equilibrium and diffusion dialysis experiments. Partition coefficients of catechol and ascorbic acid between the PNVP-membrane and the aqueous solution were 6.3 and 2.0, respectively. Diffusion coefficients in the PNVP-membrane are 4.2x10-7 for catechol and 7.0 x10-7 [cm2/s] for ascorbic acid. Permselectivity through the PNVP-membrane evaluated from the steady state fluxes of catechol and ascorbic acid is ca. 3.0 and it is in good agreement with the voltammetric selectivity. The enhanced response and selectivity of the sensor were discussed with the transport parameters obtained in this work.
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  • KENSUKE ARAI, FUMIYO KUSU, KIYOKO TAKAMURA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 599-600
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Measurement was made of emectrical potential oscillation across a liquid membrane comprised of octanol between two aqueous solutions, one containing an anionic, or carionic surfactant and alcohol. Examination was also made of effects of chemical substances added to the aqueous solution.
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  • SORIN KIHARA, KOHJI MAEDA, MITSUKO SUZUKI, YUMI YOSHIDA, MASAKAZU MATS ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 601-606
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The oscillations of potential difference at the interface between an aqueous solution (W) containing MgSO4 as a supporting electrolyte (SE) and an organic solution (Org) containing dilute ion i+ and j+•Y- as SE were investigated by forcing the transfer of i+ at the interface through an applied current. The Org employed were Cs+tetrapentylammonium tetraphenylborate (TpenA+•TPhB-) in nitrobenzene (NB), tetramethylammonium ion + TPenA+•TPhB- in NB, W++ tetraphenylarsonium dipicrylaminate (TPhAs+•DPA) in 1, 2-dichloroethane, etc. The necessary conditions for the oscillation were confirmed to be identical to those for the appearance of the maximum in the voltammogram for the transfer of i+ at the interface. By referring to the voltammogram and the electrocapillary curve at the interface and taking into account the ion pair (i+•Y-) formation equilibrium in Org, such characteristics of the oscillation as the amplitude, period, pulse width and range of the applied current available for the oscillation were elucidated, and a mechanism for the oscillation is proposed. The important roles of the adsorption -desorption of i+•Y- at the interface and the dissociation of the desorbed i+•Y- were emphasized.
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  • OSAMU SHIRAI, SORIN KIHARA, MITSUKO SUZUKI, KAORU OGURA, MASAKAZU MATS ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 607-610
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The voltammogram, VITTM, is introduced for the transfer of an ion, iz, from one aqueous solution, W1, to the other aqueous solution, W2, through a membrane, M, of organic solution (Org). The voltammogram is considerably different from that for the transfer of iz at the W/Org interface, VITIES, as follows; (1) The potential window observed in VITTM is about the twice of that in VITIES. (2) The slope of a reversible ion transfer wave in VITTM is much smaller than that in VITIES. (3) The potential region where the ion transfer wave appears in VITTM is difficult to expect, though that in VITIES can be estimated from the transfer energy of the transferring ion. In order to clarify the characteristics of VITTM, the relation between VITTM and VITIESs at W1/M and M/W2 interfaces has been investigated. Comparing the potential difference between W1 and W2, ΔV1W1-W2, at a definite current, I, in VITTM with those at W1/M and M/W2 interfaces, ΔVW1/M and ΔVM/W2, at I in VITIES, ΔVW1-W2 is found to be the sum of ΔVW1/M and ΔVM/W2, which suggests that ΔVW1-M2 and ΔWM/W2 may change depending on the ion transfer reaction at the W1/M and M/W2 interfaces even if ΔVW1-W2 is controlled at constant. The relation holds even with such a thin membrane as tetrafluoroethylene resin membrane of 48μm thick. Thepossibility of the separation of ions by the electrolysis under an applied ΔVW1-W2 is discussed based on the above-mentioned relation.
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  • ZENKO YOSHIDA, HISAO AOYAGI, YUJI SASAKI, SORIN KIHARA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 611-614
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The overall feature of the reduction-oxidation behavior of U, Np or Pu ions in acidic aqueous solutions was investigated by flow-coulometry with multi-step column electrodes. Redox potentials, number of electrons involved in the electrode processes, and reversibilities of the processes were determined and the species participating in the reactions were discussed. Methods for the rapid preparation of the ion of a desired oxidation state and for the determination and the speciation of ions were developed.
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  • KAORU OGURA, SORIN KIHARA, MITSUKO SUZUKI, OSAMU SHIRAI, MASAKAZU MATS ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 615-618
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The ion transfer polarography was applied to investigate the dissolved state of a diluted ion, iz, which is rather hydrophobic, in an aqueous solution in the presence of concentrated hydrophilic ions. The effect of coexisting ions on the dissolved states of iz was evaluated based on the electrostatic and non-electrostatic contributions on the solvation energy of iz and ion-pair formation of iz with a coexisting counter ion. The change in the electrostatic contribution was attributed to the dehydration of iz resulted from the decrease of water activity due to the hydration of the coexisting ions. The change in the non-electrostatic contribution was explained by the variation of the cavity formation energy and the dispersion force with the change of the concentration of coexisting ions. The ion-pair formation of iz with the coexisting ion is more serious when iz is more hydrophobic.
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  • QILONG LI, XINGLUAN CAO
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 619-622
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the 0.05mol/L HAc- NaAc supporting electrolyte(pH5.7), a sensitive adsorptive complex wave of In(III) and PAN complex has been obtained by using linear sweep polarography. The peak potential Ep is -0.65V(vs. SCE) and the peak current Ip is directly proportional to the concentration of In(III) from 5.0×10-8.-2.0×8-6smol/L. The limit of detection is 1.0•10-8mo1/L. The composition of the complex has been ascertained to be 1:2. The electrode reaction mechanism for the complex was studied by using linear sweep and cyclic voltammetry, Npp etc.
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  • MITSUKO SUZUKI, SORIN KIHARA, KAORU OGURA, OSAMU SHIRAI, MASAKAZU MATS ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 623-626
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Formamide or aqueous-formamide mixture is introduced for the ion transfer voltammetry at a liquid/liquid interface as one phase in place of the aqueous phase. The transfer of I-, BF4-4, C104- and CH3(CH2)n(CH3)3N+(n≥1) was investigated at the interface of aqueous, formamide or the aqueousformamide mixtures and 2-nitro-m-xylene. The transfer of these ions was confirmed to be polarographically reversible. The relations are discussed between the standard Gibbs transfer free energy, ΔG°tr, of these ions and the nature of the transferring ions or the properties of solvents based on the half-wave potentials in the polarograms. The ΔG°0tr of small anions from formamide to nitroxylene are smaller than those from aqueous. The effect of the addition of CH2 in CH3(CH2)n(CH3)3N+ on ΔG°tr from formamide to nitroxylene is smaller than that from aqueous.
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  • M-Y. PARK, K-H. LEE, Y-H. UMN, M-S. KIM, S-H. LEE, W. LEE, C-T. WON
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 627-630
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ceramic membranes made of titanium dioxide, magnesium titanate, calcium titanate or strontium titante sintered at high temperature have been studied for use as ion-selective electrode in aqueous solution. The selectrode of titanium dioxide sintered at 2614-2700°C responded weakly to silver (I) and phosphate ions, and were unusable to determine the ions. Mg1, 00Fe0.10Ti0.9003.00 selectrode sintered at 2614-2700°C and cooled to room temperature responded selectively to silver (I) and phosphate ions. Ca1.00Fe0.10T10.90O3.00 selectrode sintered at 1460°C and cooled to room temperature responded to nitrate, thiocyanate and cyanate. Sr1, 00Fe0.10Ti0.90O3.00 selectrode sintered at 1460°C was responded to nitrate ion only.
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  • HARUKO IKEUCHI, GEN P. SATO
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 631-634
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Diffusion coefficients in electrolyte solutions can be determined accurately by means of chronoamperometric methods with a thin-walled hanging mercury drop electrode or a stationary disk electrode. A more convenient, though less accurate, method is normal pulse voltammetry when the oxidized and reduced forms of the target substance are both soluble. Appropriate theoretical equations for these methods are given. Some results in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions are presented, with a discussion of the suitable experimental conditions.
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  • JAROMIR RUZICKA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 635-637
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Transformation of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) into Flow Injection Technique (FI) signifies recognition of a tremendous versatility of this method, which being originally designed as a mere tool for automation of serial assays, now becomes a universal means for enhancement of instrumental methods of analysis. Of many variants of FI, only the most recent ones are discussed here, and their impact on development of chemical sensors and spectroscopic and electrochemical instrumentation is contemplated.
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  • T.J. Cardwell, R.W. Cattrall, J.D. Petty, G.R. Scollary
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 639-640
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The operating principles of the new flow-based technology, Discontinuous Flow Analysis, are described. The uniqueness of this technique for flow titirations is discussed and examples of titrations using potentiometric and indicator detections are given. The suitability of Discontinuous Flow Analysis for process control is discussed.
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  • T. Cardwell, R. Cattrall, B. Kreiger, R. Peachey, J. Petty, G. Scollar ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 641-644
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Discontinuous Flow Analysis (DFA) was applied to the determination of chloride in water in the range 60-180mg/l, using a three step, four plateau cam profile, chloride ISE sensor and single internal standard. Duplicate measurements generated an eight row matrix of calculated sample concentrations, system slopes and Nernst parameters. Control charts were used to identify trends during the measurement, and to estimate a tolerance specific for each sample. The potential of DFA for the real time verification of the analytical measurement is discussed.
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  • SATOSHI TAKAHASHI, AKIRA HARATA, TAKEHIKO KITAMORI, TSUGUO SAWADA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 645-648
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A quasielastic laser scattering method was applied to monitoring the oil/water interface of chemical oscillation. Interfacial capillary wave (ripplon) frequencies were measured to estimate the change of interfacial tension during the electric potential oscillation. According to the conventional model of this chemical oscillation, a change in interfacial tension occurs due to formation and disappearance processes of a monolayer at the interface. However, no significant change in the interfacial tensions was detected from the ripplon frequency before and after the potential pulse generation.
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  • HIDEHIKO FUJII, SHIN NAKAMURA, MITSUHIRO HASHIMOTO, KATSUYA KASHIWAGI, ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 649-652
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A laser induced fluorescence DNA sequencer is described. The excitation/objective optics are mounted on a mechanical scanner stage. The system allows the gel possible thinnest resulting in more than 450 mer peak resolution. Full two-dimensional data (gel width × time ladder pattern) are obtained, then can confirm up to gel entire raw data. All programs run on a multitasking operating system, which enables checking/processing obtained data whenever necessary even during electrophoresis. As a result, more than 500 bases sequencing was achieved from 0.5μg Ml 3mp18 single stranded DNA template.
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  • Takahiro Kawasaki, Akira Harata, Tsuguo Sawada
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 653-654
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A novel technique by adopting pump-probe detection to thermal lens spectroscopy has been proposed for investigating fast nonradiative relaxation processes. It was applied to measurements of the relaxation of Rhodamine 6G in various solutions. The results show that nonradiative relaxation processes can be observed with time resolution of sub-nanosecond.
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  • KOICHI CHIBA, AKIHIRO ONO, MASAO SAEKI, TAKAMASA OHNO, MASAO YAMAUCHI, ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 655-658
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The atomic emissions of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Pb are identified in the hotspot radiation. The direct analysis method for molten iron in a converter is developed on the basis of the measurement of atomic emission in hotspot radiation. The analytical results obtained by this method is in fairly good agreement with those obtained by the conventional sampling method, and their correlation coefficient is 0.942. The manganese concentration in molten iron is sequentially determined for every 15 seconds. This method is applied to an on-line and real-tune analysis for molten iron in a converter.
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  • ISAMU TAGUCHI, TSUTOMU SAITO
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 659-662
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two new analyzers, a high-energy X-ray computerized tomographic scanner (X-ray CT) and a micro-focussed X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic mapping analyzer (MMA), have been developed for non-destructive analysis of archaeological materials. The analyzers were successfully applied to archaeological objects, such as woods, potteries, ceramics, bronzes and irons.
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  • SORIN KIHARA, MITSUO SANADA, SHINJI KUWADA, YOSHIKI SOHRIN, OSAMU SHIR ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 663-666
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has been demonstrated that amino acids and nucleic acid bases can be synthesized by UV irradiation even in such rather oxidizing atmosphere as aqueous solutions containing CO2, HCO3- and/or CO32- in the absence of CH4 or H2. For the production of amino acids and nucleic acid bases from ammonium carbonate solution or water to which CO2 and NH3 gases had been dissolved, UV shorter than 250nn, temperature higher than 80°C and the coexistence of Mg2+ were found to be effective. On the basis of some experimental evidences, oxalic acid and/or oxamic acid are assumed to be the possible intermediates for the synthesis.
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  • Eiichi Nakajima, Yoshie Yasukawa, Kazunori Ono, Yenji Kawai, Hayao Shi ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 667-670
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Application of “Radioluminography(RLG)” using ultra sensitive radiodetector IP. for analysis of blood 14C-concentration was investigated. This method gave us high quallity RLG images and accurate blood concentration directly from the images. It was shown that RLG is useful for sirple and rapid quantitative analysis of radioactivity concentration In liquid such as blood and plasma.
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  • THOMAS L. ISENHOUR
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 671-673
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The goal of the Analytical Director project is to build a system that can design, test, modify and implement its own analytical procedures. The Analytical Director is a combination of commercial robotic and other laboratory equipment with computer based artificial intelligence. Using a prototype system, it is now possible to design an entire analytical procedure in a high level language working from an icon driven windowed display and have the robot laboratory execute that procedure without human assistance or intervention.
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  • JUNICHI SHIDA, HIDEAKI TAKAHASHI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 675-676
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
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    A visual method based on comparing the color intensity of precipitate as phosphomolybdenum blue on a membrane filter, has been developed for the determination of trace phosphate in water. A sample solution containing 0.05-5.0μg of phosphate into a 25-ml polypropylene syringe was treated and filtered through the membrane filter attached to the syringe. This method has been applied to the determination of water samples.
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  • MINORU OKADA, HIROSHI IMAIZUMI, JUN SUGAWARA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 677-678
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
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    Hydrogen-isotope exchange reaction between HTO vapor and one of solid materials (or between Poly(vinyl alcohol)) labeled with tritium and one of liquid materials) was observed. The reaction was analyzed with both the data obtained and the A''McKay plot method, and “the acidity based on kinetic logic” of each material was obtained. It has been found that the A''McKay plot method is useful to obtain “the acidity” of a slightly soluble material.
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  • TOSHIYUKI YAMAMOTO, TOHRU FUJII, TOMOKO MATSUI, TSUGUO SAWADA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 679-681
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The cohesive and non-spherical particles were trapped in atmosphere by the radiation pressure. The samples were particles that were SiO2, Si3N4, and modified SiO2 by Rhodamine B. The two kinds of trapping systems equipped with Ar+ laser (488nm, TEM00)were used with the lenses of 50mm or 25mm focus length, respectively. The trapping positions were 2.5± 0.5mm above the focus at the laser power more than 100mw with the lens of 50mm focus length. There were equal in the size of beam diameters at the positions of particles that were trapped by 50mw laser power with the lenses of 50mm or 25mm focus length. The trapping particles got near the focus with decreasing the laser power from 100mw. The trapping positions of the modified SiO2 particles with change of the adsorbed quantity of Rhodamine B depended on the laser power, but were independent of the adsorbed quantities of Rhodamine B.
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  • HAJIME TANIDA, IWAO WATANABE, YU YOKOYAMA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 683-686
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
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    The photoelectron emission threshold energies Et of anions in various solvents have been determined by photoelectron emission spectroscopy for solution. The Et values for I-, Br- and SCN- are found to correlate with Gutmann's acceptor number of the solvent used. The reorganization energies for the solvent molecules ΔGr are obtained from the Et values. The experimental ΔGr values can be well reproduced by using model structure of solvation and solvent parameters. It is found that I- and Br- behave similarly with respect to solvation. The ΔGr analysis of SCN- indicates that the solvation of SCN- is characterized by its weaker hydrogen-bonding to solvent molecules.
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  • TETSUO HASHIMOTO, TADASHI SAKAI, NOBUTOSHI SHIRAI, SHUEI SAKAUE, MOTOS ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 687-690
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Both of fused and annealed natural quartzes were spectroscopically analyzed by using the IPDA (intensified photodiode array) on-line spectrometric system for measuring 3-dimensional thermoluminescence (TL) glow-curves. A remarkable change of TL property from red to blue occurred after the transformation to fused quartz glass. The TL properties were also searched after thermally annealing treatment for 100h at 1100°C Apparently different changes of TL-colorations were found to occur even within a Z-cut slice from a single quartz crystal; the original blue-TL quartz segments with higher Al-contents than about 100ppm are readily changeable into red-TL color after the thermal annealing, presumably in cooperation with other impurities. Accordingly, the existence of Al-O-A1 and/or Al-O-Si bond in natural quartz has been tentatively considered to play an important role of red-TL color at high temperature.
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  • Shigeo Minami
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 691-695
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
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    A novel CT (Computerized Tomography) microscope system which is capable of reconstructing 3-D material distribution in microsamples is described. Conventional CT technique based on numerically reconstructing a 3-D image from a number of projection data is modified to allow the use of a conventional optical microscope with only minor rearrangement. Its unique features include oblique illumination by monochromatic probe beam with the wavelength discretely varied, and numerical procedures to recover the information from the incomplete projection data. Two types of OCTAM (Optical CT Analytical Microscope) have been constructed and employed to analyze bio-samples. The principle characterized by numerical procedures is presented along with the optical design considerations.
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  • TOSHIO KOIKE, KEIKO GONDO, TOSHIYUKI MOCHIZUKI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 697-699
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
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    A compact automated robotized sample preparation system has been developed for large sries of complex analyses. The use of SCARA robot is profitable on both better handling and less space requirement of the system. A simple mechanical changer for the finger makes possible to handle various equipments. We designed another robot exclusively for filtration. Both robots work concurrently on the same turntable.
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  • SHUKO FUJIEDA, RIMIKO UCHIDA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 701-704
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The overlapped peaks in unsymmetrical DSC curves were decomposed into component peaks by the simplex optimization method. Sample data were composed of observed melting curves of In by adding two peaks different in position P, height H, and width W. Prior to the optimization, initial values of H, P and W, and the peak number were calculated. Programs were written in BASIC. Decomposed results were compared with those including extra fluctuation errors.
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  • XIAORU WANG, PENGYUAN YANG, DONGXIN YUAN, BENLI HUANG, RAMON M. BARNES
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 705-708
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method of improved principal component analysis is applied to the pattern recognition process for the correlation between the amount of home and school soil and dust ingested by the preschool children and the concentrations of eight marker elements selected in the biological and environmental samples. The pattern profiles for the environmental element concentrations and the children soil ingestion are illustrated.
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  • Kei-ichiroh Minami, Naohiko I-ai, Satoshi Kawata, Shigeo Minami
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 709-710
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An innovative quantization technique, delta-sigma (Δ∑) modulation, is applied to high dynamic range measurement of FT-IR spectra. An FT-IR interferogram is quantized into only one bit by a comparator in the nonlinear feedback loop system after sampled at a rate higher than the Nyquist rate. The FT-IR spectrum is calculated by the simple DFT (discrete Fourier transform) algorithm directly from the one-bit binary data. A modulator was implemented to an commercial FT-IR spectrometer and a single-beam spectrum of a nichrome source was measured for demonstrating its potential.
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  • KAZUTOSHI TANABE, KIKUKO HAYAMIZU, SHUITIRO ONO, NOBUHIDE WASADA, KAZU ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 711-712
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The integrated spectral database system SDBS has been installed on a personal computer with CD-ROM. The system has several functions: the spectral search, the dictionary search, the combined search, the display of spectra and structures of hit compounds, and the registration of private infrared data files.
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  • TORU OZEKI, HIROHIKO ADACHI, SHIGERO IKEDA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 713-716
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    So far, if a species in solution exists in relation with some equilibria and its concentration is only a part of the total amount of the conjugating species, the estimation of the structure of the species in the solution has been very difficult. Recently, we developed a new approach which makes the estimation possible: The factor analysis with equilibrium constraints is applied to the UV/V spectra of the sample solutions with various pH values to extract the pure component spectrum of the target species; and thisspectrum is simulated by the DV-Xα molecular orbital calculation, changing the structure model of the species.
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  • KAZUTOSHI TANABE, TADAO TAMURA, HIROYUKI UESAKA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 717-718
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A neural network system has been developed on a personal computer to identify 1, 129 infrared spectra. The system is composed of two steps of networks. The first step classifies 1, 129 spectra into 40 categories, and each unit of the output layer is connected to one of the 40 networks in the second step, which identify each spectrum. Each network is composed of three layers. The input, intermediate and output layers are composed of 250, 40 and 40 units, respectively. Intensity data at 250 wavenumber points between 1, 800 and 550cm-1 of infrared spectra are entered into the input layer of each network. The training of the networks was carried out using spectral data of 1, 129 compounds stored in the SDBS system, and thus the networks were successfully constructed. On the basis of the results, the system has been developed by preparing pre- and postprocessing programs. The system can identify each unknown spectrum within 0.1 seconds, and is quite efficient for identifying infrared spectra on a personal computer.
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  • HIROYUKI KATSUMI, MOTOTSUGU YOSHIDA, YASUO KIKUZONO, CHIYOZO TAKAYAMA, ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 719-722
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Application of a new chemometric system, SPECTRE, to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis in agricultural drug design has been studied. The SPECTRE system was employed to analyze experimental data by calculating a statistical predictive model using an evolution of the PLS (Partial Least Squares) regression method. This new modeling method, which does not need any a priori knowledge about the chemistry involved, is compared with multi-linear regression (MLR) analysis where the performance depends upon knowledge provided by the researcher. The SPECTRE system is shown to be able to produce similar or even superior results when compared with the conventional method.
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  • KIYOSHI HASEGAWA, HIROMICHI SHIGYOU, HIROYUKI SONOKI, YOSHIKATSU MIYAS ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 723-724
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Antiarrhythmic activity data of phenylpyridines were investigated by the PLS method. The PLS equation supported for the modulated-receptor hypothesis in Na channels on cardiac muscle cell. From the obtained PLS modelling equation, the potent antiarrhythmic agents can be produced by increasing the MR value of the substituent R on benzene ring, increasing the proton affinity(corresponding to pKa) of an amino group of a phernylpyridine.
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  • WOLFHARD WEGSCHEIDER, GOTTFRIED BAUER, PETER KARPATI, HUGO M. ORTNER
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 725-731
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A complete error model for (locally) linear systems is outlined that was recently introduced[7]. It takes into account errors of concentration values in standards, errors in measurements of standards and errors in measurements of unknowns. It is applied to the analysis of bauxites and of high purity tungsten. This error model can also be used to estimate realistic detection limits in presence of interferences that depend on the selectivity of the sensors and on the concentration levels of interferents.
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  • TAKASHI KORENAGA, YOSHIYUKI YONO
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 733-736
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Chemometrics innovation is now occurring in the field of analytical sciences using an intelligent robot toward laboratory automation. The development activity is depended on the advancement of intelligent robot manipulator in place of the traditional manual procedure of discrete sampling and followed chemical analysis. The system was composed of a Mitsubishi Denki, model RV-M1, robot manipulator, an NEC, model PC9801, personal computer for process control, commercial analytical instruments, and common experimental apparatus improved for the automated procedures. The robotics system could be applied to the automation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement with high precision, reproducibility and reliability, and was found useful for preventing the time-consuming batch chemical/biochemical analyses for purpose of industrial process control and water quality monitoring.
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  • Yutaka ICHIMURA, Michio MATSUBARA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 737-738
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The robot DSC was developed in order to apply labor saving and high-volume inspection to the field of quality control. It continuously measures up to 60 samples without human assistance, and gives highly reliable data because of the robot's precise sample pan setting. Heat capacity values (Cp) of sapphire and polyethyleneterephthalate(PET) were measured in order to find out the reproducibility The obtained Cp values of sapphire and PET showed good agreement with the literature values, and good reproducibility.
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  • SHIGEHIKO KANAYA, YOSHIHIRO KUDO
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 739-742
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Specificity of Escherichia coil σ70-promoter consensus-like sequences is examined by the x2-statistics. The promoter consensus bases are serially designated as T1 T2, G3, A4 C5, A6, T7, A8, T9 A10., A11 and T12 by neglecting a spacer bases between A6 and T7. Occurrences of highly conserved sequences of the consensus are investigated with 75 transcription units in E. coli. About four-fifths of transcription units involving all of the polycistronic units in E. coli genome are repressed in both strands, A remarkable difference is detected on the frequencies of T1., T7 and T12 between in promoters and coding regions. That is, whereas for promoter region they are higher than the critical frequency, for coding region they are lower, especially for 17-base spacers, than the critical one. The facts that occurrences of highly conserved sequences are repressed in transcription units and that x-distribution of the three T's(T1, T7 and T12) are complementary between in promoters and coding regions suggest that transcription initiations within transcription units are repressed and the three T's of promoter sequences constitute a transcription trigger.
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