Analytical Sciences
Online ISSN : 1348-2246
Print ISSN : 0910-6340
ISSN-L : 0910-6340
Volume 7 , Issue Supple
Showing 401-450 articles out of 465 articles from the selected issue
  • TSUYOSHI KATO, MICHITOSHI HAYASHI, YUICHI FUJIMURA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1481-1484
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A theory of time-resolved second harmonic generation(SHG) from molecules at interface has been developed by using the perturbative density matrix method. The mechanism of the time-resolved SHG is clarified from the microscopic point of view. The time-resolved SHG method is shown to be a new method of investigating dynamics of the correlated molecules at interface, such as intermolecular vibronic dephasing and intermolecular vibronic coherence transfer.
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  • JIAN-ZHONG ZHANG, DA YONG CHEN, HEATHER HARKE, NORMAN J. DOVICHI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1485-1489
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Detection limits of one to two thousand analyte molecules is produced by laser-induced fluorescence with the sheath flow cuvette for DNA sequencing. Two different detector systems are developed for the sequencing of real DNA samples: a single laser and single emission spectral channel system for the sequencing technique of Richardson and Tabor and a single laser excitation and dual emission spectral channel detector for the sequencing technique of DuPont. The best detection limits (1, 400 molecules) are obtained with a 750-μw helium-neon laser (λ=544nm), a cooled PMT, and tetramethylrhodamine labeled primer used with the Richardson/Tabor sequencing technique. Although better detection limits have been reported for the determination of highly dilute neat dye solution, these results for DNA sequencing are unprecedented for the analysis of real samples and are made possible by the extreme specificity of the Sanger chain-terminating reaction, the extreme resolution of capillary gel electrophoresis, and the extreme detection performance of laser induced fluorescence with the sheath flow cuvette.
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  • P. S. KAMENOV, A. PETRAKIEV
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1491-1499
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper it is demonstrated that the development of powerful enough gamma-lasers is possible in the near future. At the present level of technology, the amplification of gamma-lasers can be of more than 10 orders of magnitude, and the power of coherent radiation - more than one kilowatt. The shape and amplitude of the laser pulse are derived as a function of the active element's cooling rate. The differences from visible light lasers are stated. Notwithstanding the high amplification and the single-time action, the stimulated emission of some real radionuclides can last long enough for all scientific experiments and technological applications.
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  • LARRY J KRICKA, XIAOYING JI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1501-1506
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Horseradish peroxidase can be assayed chemiluminescently using a mixture of luminol and an oxidant, eg hydrogen peroxide or perborate. Assay characteristics can be dramatically improved by the addition of small amounts of enhancers. These substances, eg, para-iodophenol, para-hydroxycinnamic acid, and various naphthols and aromatic amines increase the light emission from the reaction by several orders of magnitude. In addition, the reagent background is diminished which contributes to the large increase in signal to background in enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) assays, The detection limit for peroxidase is 50 attomoles and the assay has been used in a wide range of assay formats (tube, bead, particle, microtiter well, membrane, dipstick). A large number of immunoassays have been developed (peptide and steroid hormones, drugs, antibodies, cancer markers) and implemented on a semi-automatic analyzer. The long-lived signal is ideal for automated instruments because initiation and measurement of light emission can be separated. It is also ideally suited to photographic assays and these have been used in extra-laboratory applications. More recently, ECL assays have been exploited in DNA hybridization assays.
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  • KENZO KANOHTA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1507-1510
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A modified discharge mode thermospray device for LC/MS interface which can be applicable both to a conventional LC and a high resolution sector type mass spectrometer is reported. The probe device has a co-axial capillaries structure, the outer of which is made of stainless steel and holds the inner fused silica capillary. It is resistively-heated to make the eluate in the fused silica misty stream and passed into mass spectrometer.
    A device for introduction of PEG solution for high resolution mass measurement is also described.
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  • FRANCIS VERILLON, FRANCOIS QIAN, PIERRE RASQUIN
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1511-1517
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dialysis has recently become a very efficient pre-chromatographic treatment technique for the determination of small and medium molecules in large series of biological, environmental and food samples when the elimination of macromolecules and solid particles is required. This paper will discuss how the classical limitations of dialysis have been overcome to achieve a recovery of 60 to 90% of the starting analytes within 3 to 7 minutes. Analytical performances are discussed within the context of automated routine analyses using HDOC.
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  • MILTON T W HEARN
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1519-1523
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study explores the physicochemical relationships which underlie the interactive processes between chaotropic or kosmotropic ions, proteins and coulombic chromatographic sorbents. Variations in the chaotropic and kosmotropic properties of the displacer ion and coion permit the protein-ligand electrostatic contact area, the protein conformation, the electrostatic topology and charge distribution of the protein to be systematically probed. Moreover, these data provide guidelines relevant not only to optimisation of a particular separation task but also pertinent to new sorbent design.
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  • YONG SOON CHUNG, SENG HO OH, KANG WOO LEE, TAIK HYUCK LEE
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1525-1528
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The poly(ethylenimine)-polymethylenepolyphenylene isocyanate(polyamine-polyurea resin) backbone chelating ion-exchange resins were prepared from the condensation reaction between the polyamine-polyurea resin and some organic acids, These resins were identified with FT-IR, elemental analysis and DSC (differential scanning calorimetey), The adsorption characteristics of some heavy metal ions on the resins were studied with measuring the effect of pH for the adsorption percentage and adsorption capacities on the optimum pH. Preconcentrations of the heavy metal ions on the resins in the presence of high concentration of salt were also studied.
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  • PHENSRI THONGNOPNUA, JUTIMA BOONLEANG, VILAI CHUNEJITBHONG, WALLEE VAN ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1529-1534
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simple and sensitive high-performanceliquid chromatographic method for the determination of spiked 2 methoxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone in human plasma has been innovatively developed. A C18 reversed-phase column was used with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-acetate buffer pH 4.0 (55:44v/v) and UV detection at 275nm. 2-Methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone was used as an internal standard. By deproteinization of plasma protein with 10% w/v zinc sulfate and methanol, the obtained supernate matrix after centrifugation can be directly injected into the chromatograph. The retention times for the compound and internal standard were 6.78 and 10.18min, respectively. No interferences from the endogenous substance has been detected.
    The sensitivity limit of detection was 0.1μg/ml of plasma.
    The accuracy of the method described as the mean of analytical recovery was 101.1% (n 15). The mean percent recoveries (n 18) with respect to the separation efficiency for 2-methoxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone and internal standard were 88.42% and 91.07%, respectively. The within-run coefficient of variation (% C.V.) over the concentration range of 0.1 16.0μg/ml was 0.9-9.9% (n=3), whereas the between-run coefficient of variation over the same concentration range was 3.8-11.0% (n 6). The innovative method described herein is convenient and specific enough for pharmacokinetic and clinical studies.
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  • IRA S. KRULL, ANDRE J. BOURQUE, MICHAEL SZULC, FEND-XIANG ZHOU, BINYAM ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1535-1538
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Solid phase or polymeric reagents perform derivatizations of nucleophiles in a heterogeneous manner, wherein the analyte in solution migrates to the reaction center, now immobilized on the solid support. Reactivities can be engineered as function of the nature of the leash holding the final tag to the polymeric support, the active center where the reaction actually occurs, and the nature of the organic or inorganic polymer itself. The polymer plays a direct role in such solid phase reactions, whereby its pore size, pore diameter, surface area, hydrophobicity, and other physical paramaters (e.g., swelling), can all be involved in nucleophilic displacement type reactions. Microenvironments can accelerate or decelerate kinetics of heterogeneous reactions, force reactions to be more selective, and improve reaction kinetics. Polymeric reagents have been used to perform both on- and off-line derivatizations in a wide variety of solvents, usually pre-column in HPLC. They can be used for both achiral and chiral reactions, to determine both chemical and enantiomeric purity of analytes, often present in complex biological matrices, without any sample pre-treatment or clean-up. Both direct and indirect enantiomeric recognition can be assisted by polymeric type derivatizations, greatly simplifying sample pre-treatment steps and requirements. Mixed-bed reactions can form several derivatives simultaneously, all or some of which can then be used to identify an analyte and its quantitative level in a complex sample matrix. Reaction conditions, often on-line, precolumn, can be varied to improve analyte identification and determination, via direct comparisons with an authentic standard in the same or a similar sample matrix.
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  • Sam Fong Yau Li, Chye Peng Ong, Sock Khim Yeo, Choon Lan Ng
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1539-1544
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, the use of a systematic scheme for the optimization of capillary electrophoretic separations is investigated. The scheme is based on the overlapping mapping procedure, an interpretative optimization scheme, to predict the optimum conditions for the separation. The use of the procedure was demonstrated for selected groups of compounds, such as flavonoids and plant growth regulators. Procedures for the optimization of two parameters, such as pH and surfactant concentration, as well as for the optimization of three parameters, such as the compositions of three different modifiers in CE separation are presented. To validate the optimization procedure, additional experiments were performed using the electrophoretic conditions found in the optimum region, which gave satisfactory separation of all the peaks.
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  • MASAAKI SENDA, TORU SASAKI, HITOSHI NAKAMOTO, TETSUO HIYAMA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1545-1548
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Several redox proteins and nucleotides involved in photosynthetic electron transfer were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with a noncoated fused silica capillary column. We found that reduced and oxidized forms of plastocyanin, cytochrome c, NAD and NADP could be separated by CZE. Two types of ferredoxin, commonly present among higher plants, were also clearly separated by this technique.
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  • SHIZUO FUJIWARA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1549-1551
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The scope of the safety study is introduced as well as the activities of the Society of Safety Study which has been formed for the promotion of it.
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  • Rinzou EBUKURO
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1553-1556
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An examination method for functional performances of a system especially for human role in sensing system from human-sensor mergence view point by four elements method is introduced in this paper. The four elements method will make human-sensor mergence clear and would offer one of the ways for removing problems that occur under ignorance of human-sensor mergence.
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  • MINORU KOTAKI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1557-1560
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications is doing study and research on development of millimeter radio wave technology, and its practical application to sensing systems since 1977. In 1984, a committee was established for the study and research for sensing system development, and the final report was issued in March 1991. The main characteristics of millimeter radio wave are extremely short wave length, large propagation losses These characteristics have suggested typical applications in sensing system. In day to day, people began to demand high quality life, and society tend to be supported by more and more aging people in future. The authors believe that these new situation need millimetere radio wave sensing system to enjoy salty life. The work reported here is concerned with the study and research results for millimeter radio wave sensing technology which carried out by the committee.
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  • CHIKARA AMANO, SHIZUO FUJIWARA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1561-1564
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As an extension of the previous reports on the antenna effect of the human bodies towards electromagnetic fields in space, various phenomena due to the interaction of the electromagnetic fields with the human bodies, including frequency response characteristics of the human body as a receiving antenna, and dependence of the induced voltages on individuals or on the sorts of footwears are presented. These phenomena are applied to the study of adventitious sources of electromagnetic fields in space such as visual terminals and fluorescent lamps.
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  • Yukio Hiranaka, Hiro Yamasaki
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1565-1568
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Locating a gas source, such as a leak of fuel gas, is usually done using animal senses, but we are now developing techniques to do this job quickly, reliably and automatically. This is essentially requires the monitoring of a spatial field, using a two-dimensional array of gas sensors. The element sensors are of the semiconductor type. Because it is unusual for a gas field to be expressed by a simple diffusion model, gas source cannot be satisfactorily located using such a model. However, we have additionally used temporal data from each element sensor with promising results. The gas source can be inferred from the spatio-temporal information picked up by the sensors. We have carried out several modeling experiments with a 64-element sensor array and a test of its gas leak locating capability has yielded encouraging results. However, further work is required to improve the accuracy of the technique.
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  • MASAHIKO HANZAWA, MAKOTO ARAI, AKIRA YAMADA, SHIGEYUKI EDOGAWA, JUN SA ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1569-1570
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A laboratory automation system for safety evaluation tests of new industrial chemicals has been developed. This system consists of three subsystems. The analytical system has been assigned for data acquisition and transaction in analytical apparatus. The monitoring system has managed the biological test condition. The host computer system has fulfilled the database management and the preparation of reports. Additionally, taking account of GLP principles, the present system has functioned. This system has enabled to improve the operational efficiency and the reliability of test results.
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  • Masayuki Kunugi, Takeshi Nakano, Taku Okamoto
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1571-1572
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have constructed an individual contribution type database on a private forum in one of the major telecommunications networks. Members of the private forum have sent and contributed various kinds of environmental information to a computer conference and a data library inside the private forum. Telecommunication is useful for retrieving and exchanging information with mutual understanding among members of the forum.
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  • Tomonori Gotoh, Haruhiko Yamamoto, Shinji Takagi, Shoichi Kawamura, Yu ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1573-1576
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper describes survey and evaluation of important terms on drug safety. We used a case study on the pharmaceutical, Lovastatine for the survey, and an analysis of frequency of the terms for the evaluation. Four words, “adverse”. “safety”. “toxicity”. “failure” were found at higher occurrence frequency rate in the records containing mainly description on safety than that in the records with little or no description on safety.
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  • AKIHIKO KATO, YUKO KONNO, YOSHIKI YANAGIDA, MASAHARU YANASATO, TOMIO T ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1577-1580
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper we show that the electrode by d.c. reactive sputtering of iridiuim oxide on the solid substrates have utility for pH sensing. We named this electrode “METOX pH Sensor ” in order to distinguish from Glass Electrode.
    “ETOX pH Sesor” had linear response over a range of 0 to 14 and Nernstian slope 59.15mV/pH. For long-term stability in aqueous solutions, the drift of potential was less than 8mv over1000 hrs in pH6.86 buffer solution. Interferences of oxidizing and reducing substances were less than a few millivolts.
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  • SHOICHI KAWAMURA, HIROSHI TAKESHITA, KATSUMI KUROTAKI, SADAO SHIBATA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1581-1584
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A safety separation of strontium from calcium substituted for the conventional dropwise addition of fuming nitric acid to the 90Sr analyte solution was developed, based on addition of fuming nitric acid all at once to the solution, sealed with a thin film and then stirred. Decontamination and recovery of strontium of “present procedure” was virtually the same as those of the “conventional procedure”. The former prevents the external release of toxic fuming nitrogen dioxide vapor from the analyte solution, which contribute significantly to safety handling in view of radiochemical determination of strontium.
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  • Kunihiro SEKI, Kazuyoshi SAKAMOTO
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1585-1588
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recent decades witness an exploding development of high pressure studies in living subjects. The industry need for oil has acted as a permanent and general stimulus for deep diving. Progress in research has improved safety, human performance tolerable level and efficiency of work at depth. Such research is also of practical interest if we have to make a reliable selection of those subjects who will be highly adaptive to pressure.
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  • FUJIO OHISHI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1589-1590
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The author has developed a new method, capable of predicting durability of plastic parts under railway service conditions. It uses newly revised C-shaped specimens, which are kept under a constant tensile and compressive stress in a crack-promoting agent, while following the stress relaxation to determine S.S.C.Index, at a specific temperature and holding time. These indices have been correlated with field test results collected over about 12 years. Actual damage rates, based on the probability of plastic parts lasting about 10 years can be now estimated by a one-hour laboratory test.
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  • TAKEO KANEKO, RYO MIYATA, HIROTO ITOH, KENSEI KOEAYASHI, MASAHIKO TSUC ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1591-1592
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new device, surface and film analyzer (SFA-A), by which the surface of a sample is ionized and currents flowing in the sample are measured, was applied to organic materials such as polymer films. Grid voltage - current relationships (Vg-I curves) and the influence of temperature on them were studied. Polymer films examined showed different shapes of Vg-I curves from each other according to the electrical properties of samples. Differences in their temperature dependence were also observed. Computer simulation for Vg-I curves reveals close agreement between experimental results and calculated curves.
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  • JI-YE JIN, TAKUMI ANDO, NORIO TERAMAE, HIROKI HARAGUCHI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1593-1594
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    FT-IR reflection absorption spectroscopy(RAS) was used to determine chemical structural changes of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) films which were electrochemically grown on platinum(Pt) electrodes at various stages of polymerization. Results indicated that the doping degrees of counter anion in PPy films are different during the process of electropolymerization.
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  • YOSHINORI SUGITANI, TAKAYA TAKEI, KENJI KATO
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1595-1596
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A fully automated system of the correlation photoacoustic imaging has been constructed making use of the FFT signal processor connected to a personal computer. Depth resolved images were obtained on some model samples with a simple structure of two layers.
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  • ATSUSHI MURASE, YASUO ESAKI, MOTOYASU SUGIURA, TOSHIMI ARAGA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1597-1600
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Chemical structure of degraded polymers were analyzed in the depth direction by infrared spectroscopy. The method was developed by combining the cutting technique with a microtome and the micro-analysis technique by FT-IR. It has enabled the measurement of the distribution of chemical structures in the depth direction with micron-ordered resolution. Its application to the studies on polymer degradation was confirmed to be useful for the evaluation of weathering tests, and for the analysis of the degradation mechanism and the migration of additives in polymers.
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  • Yuzuru Fujiwara, Masao Uetsuki, Hanxiong Chen
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1601-1604
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    PQLYSPECS is an acronym from Polymer NMR Spectral Database system and consists of H and 13C NMR spectra of commercial polymers all of which are originally obtained for the system. With the objective to help NMR specialists and polymer chemists elucidate molecular structures of organic polymers, 1H spectra were measured at 500MHz and 125MHz, respectively, for 206 different polymers, together with 13C at the corresponding frequencies. They were recorded with related information such as experimental conditions as well as assignment of peaks in a CD-ROM of 540M-bytes This system has functions to process spectra graphically, to analyze them quantitatively and to retrieve spectra via polymer names, structures, substructures, polymer classification codes, chemical shifts etc. and has been developed on a personal computer. The assignment were given to as many NMR signals as possible that correspond to main structures of homopolymers, as well as to copolymer sequences, stereoregular tacticities, branch structures, irregular bonds, end groups, and so on. The system has been designed to allow for users to develop their own elaborated functions such as estimation of chemical shifts and structural elucidation for advanced research of polymers. Although additivity rules for 13C chemical shifts are useful for those purpose, parameters in the rules are not always easy to obtain, especially for polymers which have long range interaction among subgroups in main chains and side chains. Parameters in additivity rules are easily decided by using appropriate sets of data in the databases. This is an example of sophisticated application of POLYSPECS, to which infrared spectra will be added in the next version to be issued soon.
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  • NOBUKO KATO, MINAKO HARADA, ARATA MIYAGI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1605-1608
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aromatic proton peak shape in 400MHz 1H-NMR spectra for commercially available styrene-butadiene copolymers is classified into the five categories corresponding to the styrene sequence distribution obtained by ozonolysis-GPC. The relationship between the sequence length and peak splitting was also investigated.
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  • JUN KIKUMA, TOKUZOU KONISHI, AKIRA NAKAMURA, NOBUHIRO TAMURA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1609-1612
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Efficient polymer analyses were performed by Auger electron spectroscopy in combination with ultrathin sectioning which eliminated sample surface charging under the electron beam exposure and cryogenic sample cooling which prevented peak degradation for volatile components and thus permitted their accurate determination. High resolution Auger images were obtained, permitting accurate determination of Cl distribution of particles of acrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer (AN/VdCl).
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  • SATORU YAMAZAKI, TUNEHISA KIMURA, KAZUYA NEKI, NOBUHIRO TAMURA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1613-1616
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    High resolution solid state 13C NMR measurements were performed for nylon 66 samples crystallized under various conditions, using the cross polarization/high power decouplin(Jmagic angle spinning (CP/DD/MAS)) and DD/MAS techniques. The 13C spin-lattice relaxation times (T1C) were measured, using Torchia's pulse sequence. The structure and dynamics of nylon66 in the solid state are discussed on the basis of the results.
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  • HIROSHI HASEGAWA, AKIHITO NISHIMURA, YUZO YANAGIHARA, ICHIRO NAGOYA, N ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1617-1620
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using solution 1H-NMR we studied the interaction between naphthalene(NA) and octadecylpolymer gel(ODP) for reversed phase HPLC. The line width and the intensity of 1H-NMR NA signal depended on the density of octadecyl chain(OD) on the surface of the base polymer. The exchange rate of NA on ODP and ODS were estimated from 1H-NMR data and capacity factor k'. Our conclusion is that NA binding site exists on the surface of the base polymer
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  • KENJI SUEOKA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1621-1623
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) have been recently noted as high-performance polymers. Sequence distribution analyses of LCPs containing p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB) as one of comonomers were studied using 13C-NMR. It was found that the resonances of their carboxyl carbons are split due to their diad sequences. The assigments of the resonances were accomplished using model compounds. PHB average sequence length could be caluculated on the basis of these assignments.
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  • TOSHIO OGAWA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1625-1628
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
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    Peeled surfaces in polyimide film/adhesive/copper foil system were analyzed by ESCA. The peaks due to oxygen, nitrogen and carbon were noticed, and the values of O/N and N/C in peeled surfaces were determined. The values in both polyimide film and copper foil sides were very similar to those on the surface of polyimide film before adhesion. The values are also very similar to those calculated from the chemical structure. On the other hand, the value of O/N in adhesive itself is very different from that on peeled surfaces. It is concluded that fracture occurs within polyimide film, i.e., cohesive fracture.
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  • KOICHI UTE, KOICHI HATADA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1629-1632
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) of polymethacrylates, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and chloral oligomer was performed by 1H NMR on-line detection. Molecular weight (MW) dependence of tacticity and copolymer composition of polymethacrylates was clearly shown for a short time with a small amount of a sample. Acetyl residues content for the alkaline-hydrolyzed PVA was found to be dependent on MW where-as the content was almost independent on MW for the acid-hydrolyzed PVA. MW-distribution of poly(methyl methacrylate) could be directly determined by the absolute calibration method using on-line GPC/NMR.
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  • TOSHIKATSU NISHIOKA, NORIO TERAMAE
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1633-1636
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic functional group imaging was applied for characterization of a coated interface and a polymer blend. The sample investigated was prepared by coating a polyurethane layer on EAA/EEA copolymer. A mixed phase of the two polymers could be detected clearly at the interface region. As for a polymer blends prepared by mixing polypropylene and polycarbonate, the spatially specific compositional heterogeneity could be easily identified.
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  • ZHISHEN MO, BAOQHAN YANG, HOHGFANG ZHAHG
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1637-1640
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
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    Based on the X-ray scattering intensity theory, the of the degree of crystallinity formulae of the crystalline polymers have been clearly defined. The formula of degree of crystallinity are derived in terms of the WAXD theory and improved graphic multipeak resolution methods. The results are discussed with some typical example.
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  • YASUYUKI SAKATA, KOH-HEI NITTA, AYA MURAI, KAZUO KUMAMOTO
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1641-1644
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The degree of crosslinking and the network structure of ion exchange resins based on styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer were investigated using swollen state 13C-NMR and 1H-pulsed NMR spectroscopy It was found that 13C line widths increased with increasing the crosslinks and three T2•s were observed by pulsed NMR. The component with the shortest T2 was systematically varied with the cosslinks.
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  • EISAKU SATOH, YASUNORI YAMAMOTO, TOSHIYUKI TAKYU
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1645-1648
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sensitive and rapid methods have been proposed for the determination of pert per billion levels of elements in polycarbonate(PC) used as optical materials. The contents of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Na were determined directly by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry(GFAAS) with a solid sampling method. Na+ and Cl- were analyzed by ultrapure water extraction-GFAAS and ion chromatography, respectively. The accuracy of these methods was confirmed by comparative analyses. The proposed methods were applied to optical fiber and disk of PC. The analysis time required a few hours.
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  • SHIGETOSHI AMIYA, KEISHI MATHUMURA, TOSHIROU TANIGUCHI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1649-1650
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The microstructure of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) has been studied by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Hexafluoroisopropanol(HFIP)-d2/chloroform-d1(CDCl3) (1/25 vol/vol) mixture as a solvent of PET for NMR mesurement is used. From the analysis of 1H-NMR spectrum. We can determine many different types of irregular structures of PET quantitatively as follows; Diethylene glycol and Triethylene Glycol. Ethylene Glycol and Diethylene Glycol terminal groups. Methyl ester group.
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  • KAZUO KUROSAKI, HIROYUKI WATANABE, TATSUYA MARUYAMA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1651-1654
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the system of polyimide(PI)/metal, the oxidation of meta at both metal surface and PI/metal interface and the diffusion of metal to PI were infered from PBS measurement and TEM observation. These were enhanced by curing in some cases. The AES and XPS depth profiles of metal, carbon and oxygen across the interface were consistent with the results of BBS and TEM. The formation of metal oxide would be interpreted in terms of the defect structure of PI, that was proved by IR and TG-MS measurements.
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  • Etsushi AKASHIGE, Takao USAMI
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1655-1656
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The micron-scale distribution of molecular orientation in the cross section of an injection-molded polypropylene sheet was determined by polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity ratio of 808cm-1 band to 841cm-1 band in polarized Raman spectrum of polypropylene was found to be a good index of molecular orientation. By focusing the laser beam to approximately 2μm, next results were obtained. (1) The depth profile of the intensity ratio near the center of the sheet showed the multilayer structure of molecular orientation at positions of about 100 and 350μm from the surface. (2) The depth profiles of the direction and degree of orientation near the film gate were simultaneously obtained and showed that the disorder of the flow existed to about 2mm distance from the gate.
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  • TOSHIYUKI OSAKAI, HAJIME KATANO, SADAYUKI HIMENO, ATSUYOSHI SAITO
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1657-1658
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    When an isopolyanion (MO6O192-) transfers from nitrobenzene (NB) to water (W), the anion rapidly decomposes in W to liberate Mo(VI), which subsequently forms heteropoly complexes with orthophosphate, silicate, arsenate and germanate ions. As an application, a voltammetric sensor for orthophosphate ion has been developed. The sensor shows a current response proportional to the orthophosphate concentration in the range from 0.02 to 0.5mM.
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  • RAINER LUDWIG, ROLF DREYER
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1659-1662
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The horizontal zone electromigration in electrolyte solutions allows the characterization of ligand exchange equilibria of radioactive ions in tracer concentration by measuring their ion mobility in dependence on the ligand concentrations. In this work stabilities of complexes between /211At/At(I) and organic, P-, S- and Se-containing ligands were determined using ligand exchange reactions in non-aqueous solutions.
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  • HIDEO MIYAZAKI, YOKO OTA, TOSHIHIKO MAEKAWA, SHOHEI ODA
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1663-1665
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    New H+-selective ion carriers suitable for impregnating in liquid membrane as the active component of the pH electrodes are described. It has been found that lipophilic amine oxide and phosphine oxide behaved as neutral carrier for proton with excellent selectivities at basic side or acidic side, respectivly. The observed ion selectivities for the new electrodes utilizing the proton carriers were superior to those of previously reported pH-sensitive liquid membrane electrodes.
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  • WEIZHEN XU, CHANGDONG FENG, JINHUA HUANG, LANGJUAN ZHANG, JIANLIN SU, ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1667-1670
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    New sensitive membrane comosition and glass preparation techniques have been found to make our GKF sterilizable pH glass electrode. The electrode has a 0.34 zeropotential pH shifr after 54 continual cycles of sterilization at 121°C (each cycle lasts 30 minutes). Before sterilization its zeropotential pH is 6.5±0.5. Its inner resistance is smaller than 500MΩ, its PTS is larger than 95% and its insulation resistance is larger than 10Ω.
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  • YASUHIKO SHIBUTANI, KENJI YAKABE, TOSHIYUKI SHONO, YUKO YAMASHOJI, MIN ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1671-1674
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Four kinds of lipophilic calix[4]aryl ester derivatives (A)-(D) have been designed for Na+-selective polymeric membrane electrodes. On the ion selectivity of (A)-based electrode, the phenyl ether type membrane solvent, especially FPNPE is superior to the diester type ones in Na+ selectivity against K+. On the contrary, in the Na+ electrode of (B), de-tert-butylated derivative of (A), the diester type solvent, DOP gave good result. The selectivity coefficients for Na+ with respect to K+ (-log kPotNaK) being nearly 2.5. The (B)/DOP-based Na+-selective electrode was successfully applied to Na+ assay in human blood sera.
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  • HIROTSUGU MINAMI, MASAYUKI UTO, MASAO SUGAWARA, KAZUNORI ODASHIMA, YOS ...
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1675-1676
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An attempt was made for the evaluation of signal amplification by the ion channel sensor based on a glutamate receptor ion channel protein as a sensory element. The molecular response ratio, defined as the capability of each sensory molecule to induce a change in the number of ions permeated through the membrane, was calculated to be 1.9× 107(per second) for the single-channel sensor. The extremely high sensitivity as compared with that of the artificial systems was discussed in terms of the signal amplification indicated by the molecular response ratio.
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  • TOSHIO NAKAMURA, KOSUKE IZUTSU
    1991 Volume 7 Issue Supple Pages 1677-1679
    Published: 1991
    Released: July 27, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The response of the ion-selective electrode, prepared by coating a platinum disk with a membrane of polyacrylamide(PAA) polymer coupled to the tetraaminophthalocyanine cobalt complex (PhCo), was investigated for various anions in acetonitrile(AN) and propylene carbonate(PC). The electrode showed a Nernstian response only to the fluoride and cyanide ions in AN and PC. The selectivity coefficient, kCN-, F-, in PC, was 10. The preliminary value of the solubility produci of lithium cyanide in PC was obtained by titrating the tetraethylammonium cyanide with the lithium perchlorate. Voltammetric behaviors of the PAA-PhCo electrode for several anions in AN were investigated.
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