The Journal of Antibiotics
Online ISSN : 1881-1469
Print ISSN : 0021-8820
ISSN-L : 0021-8820
Volume 21 , Issue 3
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • THE ROLE OF β-LACTAMASE AND ACYLESTERASE IN THE ENZYMATIC DEGRADATION OF CEPHALOSPORINS
    MINORU NISHIDA, YOSHIKO YOKOTA, MASAO OKUI, YASUHIRO MINE, TADAO MATSU ...
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 165-169
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    m-Bromophenylacetamidocephalosporanic acid(m-Br-PACA) was highly degraded by a strain(No. 11)of E. coli, but less degraded by a strain(No. 33) of Staph. aureus. α-Phenylacetamidocephalosporanic acid (α-Ph-POCA) gave opposite results with these bacteria. A cephalosporin C derivative, m-Cl PACA, was degraded by acylesterase as well as by β-lactamase with E. coli No.11.
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  • JUN-ICHI SHOJI, MITSUO EBATA, HIDEO OTSUKA
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 170-178
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    (1) D-Alanyl-D-alanine, D-alanine, L-alanine, D, L-α-aminobutyric acid, D-serine, and L-methionine were found to reverse the action of O-carbamyl-D-serine on Bacillus subtilis in synthetic medium. (2) When O-carbamyl-D-serine was added to the growth medium a relative increase of L-aianine and ammonia, and an accumulation of a nucleotide peptide were observed. The structure of the nucleotide peptide was identified as UDP-MurNAc-Ala-Glu-DAP. (3) Several compounds related to O-carbamyl-D-serine were synthesized and tested for their antimicrobial activity. Only O-carbamyl-D-serine methyl ester exhibited activity, which could be reversed by D-alanyl-D-alanine, D-alanine and L-alanine. N-D-Alanyl-O-carbamyl-D-serine which has been reported to be enzymatically synthesized by D-alanyl-D-alanine synthetase of Streptococcus faecalis R, did not have antimicrobial activity. (4) We concluded that the primary site of the action of O-carbamyl-D-serine in Bacillus subtilis is an enzymatic system controlling racemization of alanine. A similar conclusion was previously reached by LYNCH and NEUHAUS by use of enzymatic methods in Streptococcus faecalis R.
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  • TAMOTSU FURUMAI, HIROKO OGAWA, TOMOHARU OKUDA
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 179-181
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    Since the isolation of Streptosporangium viridogriseum1) the original sporaviridin producing strain, a new species of sporangium-forming actinomycete, has been isolated as a producer of sporaviridin-like antibiotics. This strain, indexed MCRL-048 in our culture collection, was isolated from the soil sample collected at Mt. Tanigawa, Gumma Prefecture. Taxonomic studies revealed that strain MCRL-048 is a new species belong ing to the genus Streptosporangium, for which the name Streptosporangium albidum Furumai et Okuda nov. sp. is proposed. The present paper concerns the taxonomy of strain MCRL-048.
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  • BIOSYNTHESIS OF THE TWO-CARBON-SIDE CHAIN OF KASUGAMYCIN
    YASUO FUKAGAWA, TSUTOMU SAWA, TOMIO TAKEUCHI, HAMAO UMEZAWA
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 182-184
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    The incorporation of various 14C-labeled compounds into the two-carbon side chain of kasugamycin was studied. Among U-14C-maltose, U-14C-glucose, U-14C-mannose, 1-14C-glycerol, U-14C-pyruvate, 1-14C-acetate, U-14C-myoino sitol, 1-14C-glycine, 2-14C-glycine, U-14C-glyoxylate, U-14C-oxalate and U-14C serine tested, 1-14C-glycine and 2-14C-glycine were most highly incorporated into the side chain of kasugamycin. They were almost exclusively incorporated into two carbons of the side chain. U-14C-Serine was incorporated at the rate 4 times less than 2-14C-glycine. A dilution effect of glyoxylate, oxamate and oxalate on the incorporation of 2-14C-glycine was not observed.
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  • BIOSYNTHESIS OF THE D-INOSITOL MOIETY
    YASUO FUKAGAWA, TSUTOMU SAWA, TOMIO TAKEUCHI, HAMAO UMEZAWA
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 185-188
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The incorporation of various 14C-labeled compounds into the D-inositol moiety was studied. Among U-14C-maltose, U-14C-glucose, U-14C-mannose, 1-14C-glycerol, U-14C-pyruvate, 1-14C-acetate, U-14C-myoinositol, 1-14C-glycine, 2-14C-glycine and 14C-D-inositol, only U-14C-myoinositol was incorporated at a high rate. From the dilution test of D-inositol, D-inositol was proved not to be a precursor of the D-inositol moiety of kasugamycin. The radiogaschromatography of 14C-kasugamycin showed the conversion of U-14C-myoinositol to the 14C-D-inositol moiety of kasugamycin.
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  • THE SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF MITOMYCIN DERIVATIVES
    MASANAO MATSUI, YASUHIRO YAMADA, KEIZO UZU, TADASHI HIRATA
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 189-198
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    About sixty derivatives of mitomycin were synthesized from natural mito-mycins and subjected to antibacterial and antitumor tests. Some of them were more effective than mitomycin C. The structure-activity relationship of derivatives were also investigated.
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  • STRUCTURE OF LEUCOMYCIN A1
    SATOSHI OMURA, MICHIKO KATAGIRI, TOJU HATA
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 199-203
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    Leucomycin A1 is the main and most active component of leucomycins. From the degradative and comparative studies of the component with leuco mycin A3, which is a new component of leucomycins, the proposed structure for leucomycin A1 is revised.
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  • PRODUCTION, EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBSTANCE B44 P AND THE IDENTITY OF THE SUBSTANCE WITH STREPTOVARCIN
    HISAJI YAMAZAKI
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 204-208
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    A pigment antibiotic, substance B44P, was obtained from the cultural liquid of Streptomyces species No. B 44-P 1 almost identified with Streptomyces spectabilis. Seven components were detected in the substance B44P by thin layer chromatography. Two main components (A, B) and a minor one (C) being identical with streptovaricins were purified.
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  • MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES
    HISAJI YAMAZAKI
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 209-221
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    An antibiotic substance B44P identical with streptovaricin showed a strong inhibitory activity in vitro, mainly against Gram positive bacteria including Mycobact. tuberculosis. It also inhibited the growth of Sh. sonnei, Sh. boydii and Salm. enteritidis at small doses, but exhibited no activity against fungi. The antibacterial activity was not virtually influenced by the inoculum number of test cells, the medium pH within the range of 5.0-8.5, or human blood serum added to the medium. The mode of activity was considered to be mainly bacteriostatic, while partly bactericidal. Gram negative bacteria such as Sh. boydii and Salm. enteritidis could readily be made resistant to the substance B44P by being transferred through medium containing this antibiotic. On the other hand, Staph. aureus developed resistance slowly step by step. The frequency of naturally resistant mutants were nil in S. enteritidis and Sh. boydii and 1.0-4.6×10-6 in Staph. aureus. No cross resistance was found between the substance B44P and other antibiotics. The substance B44P exhibited low toxicity in mice by single or long-term administration. A dog showed practically no pathologic signs by oral administration of 200 mg/kg/day of the drug for 33 successive days. Another dog, however, which received 500 mg/kg/day, developed some symptoms. Liver, kidney and bone marrow were not considered to be damaged by oral administration of this antibiotic. When orally given, the substance B44P was absorbed and appeared in the blood and the urine quite rapidly. Excretion continued for about a day. Relatively dense distributions of the antibiotic were observed in the livers and stomachs of mice after oral administration.
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  • CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC EFFECT ON STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFECTION IN MICE
    HISAJI YAMAZAKI
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 222-226
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A chemotherapy study was carried out on the substance B44P against staphylococcal infection in mice and resulted in a demonstration of its moderate therapeutic activity. The substance was active against multi-drug-resistant staphylococcus as well as against drug-sensitive staphylococcus in vivo. As a reference, tetracycline exhibited a curative effect in mice infected with drug sensitive staphylococcus, but was ineffective against multi-drug-resistant staphylococcus infection. From these results and the low toxicity of the substance B44P, it is suggested that the substance B44P might be applicable in chemotherapy of the disease caused by multi-drug-resistant staphylococcus.
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  • BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF ACTION OF SUBSTANCE B44P
    HISAJI YAMAZAKI, SATOSHI MIZUNO, KAZUO NITTA, RYOZO UTAHARA, HAMAO UME ...
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 227-233
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    The mechanism of action of the substance B44P, an antibacterial antibiotic, was studied with growing cells of E. coli B and St. aureus 209P. This antibiotic was found to inhibit protein and RNA synthesis in these cells. With a cell-free system using S-30 fraction of E. coli B, this antibiotic was shown not to affect protein synthesis, in absence of RNA synthesis. Consequently, it was concluded that the substance B44P primarily inhibits RNA synthesis in bacterial cells. The difference in the mechanism of RNA synthesis inhibition by the substance B44P and actinomycin D was discussed.
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  • HAMAO UMEZAWA, SATOSHI MIZUNO, HISAJI YAMAZAKI, KAZUO NITTA
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 234-236
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
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  • TAKASHI TSURUOKA, TAKASHI SHOUMURA, NORIO EZAKI, TOMIZO NIWA, TARO NII ...
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 237-238
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • NOBUO TANAKA, SATOKO IGUSA
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 239-240
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
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  • HIROSHI NAGANAWA, TOMOHISA TAKITA, KENJI MAEDA, HAMAO UMEZAWA
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 241-242
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • R. R. CHANDRAN, R. SANKARAN, P. V. DIVEKAR
    1968 Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 243
    Published: March 25, 1968
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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