The lividomycins are new aminoglycosidic antibiotics containing 2-amino-2, 3-dideoxy-D-glucose and are produced by Streptomyces lividus nov. sp., strain No. 2230-N1. Lividomycins A and B have been isolated, purified and characterized. The lividomycins-producing strain also produces mannosyl paromomycin and paromomycin I. The morphological, cultural and physiological characteristics of strain No. 2230-N1 were studied and as a result of comparison with knownspecies, the organism was considered a newspecies.
Aminoglycosidic antibiotics have been isolated from Streptomyces lividus nov. sp., and purified by ion-exchange column chromatography. Two of them containing 2-amino-2, 3-dideoxy-D-glucose were named lividomycins A and B. One further compound, also confirmed to be a new memberof the paromomycin group was provisionally designated as antibiotic No. 2230-C. The fourth compound which was designated as No. 2230-D was identified as paromomycin I. Lividomycins A, B and No. 2230-C were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including Mycobacterium sp.
In our screening for pesticidal antibiotics using Azuki-bean weevil as a test insect, a new antibiotic, tetranactin, was isolated as crystalline rhombic prisms from the filter cake of the fermented broth of Streptomyces aureus strain S-3466. Tetranactin shows significant insecticidal activity against Azuki-bean weevil by the topical application method but lucks the activity by the film contact method. The adults of carmine mite are highly sensitive to the antibiotic, since LC50 for the mite is 9 ppm bythe spray method. The antibiotic inhibits the growth of gram-positive bacteria and some phytopathogenic fungi in vitro at low concentrations. Acute toxicity of tetranactin is low ; mice tolerated an intraperitoneal administration of 300 mg/kg and an oral administration of 15, 000 mg/kg.
A new antibiotic, named kinamycin1, 2), has been isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces murayamaensis sp. nov. HATA et OHTANI, which was obtained from a soil sample collected in Murayama, Saitama-ken, Japan. Kinamycins, produced as components A, B, C, and D as a mixture, are quinone antibiotics which show strong inhibitory activities against grampositive bacteria. Details of the fermentation, isolation, and physico-chemical and biological characteristics are given.
Flavomycoin is a polyene antibiotic isolated from the mycelium of Streptomyces roseoflavus ARAI 1951 var. jenensis nov. var. JA 5068 as yellow-green crystals. It shows inhibitive activities against yeasts and fungi as well as protozoa. It is optically active, exhibits an ultraviolet spectrum without fine structure with maxima at 363 nm and 263 nm. Analytical studies indicated that the molecular formula of the antibiotic is C41H68O10 and the molecular weight 721. These results were confirmed by degradation to the parent hydrocarbon and by catalytic hydrogenation. As flavomycoin is different from the related substances mycoticin and flavofungin, it must be considered as a new antibiotic.
The polyene antibiotic flavomycoin contains a pentaene chromophore which is conjugated with the lactone carbonyl group. This fact was proved by reduction of flavomycoin with lithium aluminum hydride, by low temperature ultraviolet spectroscopy and the infrared absorption of perhydro-flavomycoin. Oxidative degradation of perhydro-flavomycoin resulted in 2-methyl-tridecane-1, 13-dioic acid which was identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A partial formula for flavomycoin is given.
Intraperitoneally administered cephalothin-14C is rapidly metabolized and excreted in the rat with about 70% of a radioactive dose appearing in urine in 4 hours. The major metabolite is desacetylcephalothin which forms by hydrolysis of the ester group. Some in vivo side chain hydrolysis at position 7 also occurs as indicated by the excretion of thienylacetylglycine, a metabolite of thiophene acetic acid. A long-lived minor metabolite occurs in blood and appears to be an albumin-cephalothin complex. A similar complex forms from cephaloglycin, 7-phenylacetamidocephalosporanic acid and 6-thienylacetamidopenicillanic acid but not from desacetylcephalothin, cephalexin, penicillin G or penicillin V. The complex was formed in vitro by incubation of radiocephalothin with rat serum.
Melinacidin is a crystalline mixture of closely related antibacterial agents produced by Acrostalagmus cinnabarinus var. melinacidinus. Melinacidin inhibits a variety of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro but is found to be toxic and ineffective in the treatment of experimental bacterial infections in mice. Melinacidin which inhibits the growth of KB and L-1210 cells in tissue culture appears to belong to the "3, 6-epidithiadiketopiperazine" group of antibiotics.
AKASAKI et al.1) reported that the Streptomyces strain IN-183-T, resembling S. lavendulae as described by Waksman et Henrici2), produced a new water-soluble basic antibiotic yazumycin. In this paper, we wish to report the identification of yazumycins A and C as racemomycins A and C.3, 4)
Resistaphylin is a new antibacterial antibiotic produced by an identified species of Streptomyces antibioticus No. K-869. The active substance in the fermented broth can be isolated by solvent extraction followed by chromatography on an alumina column. It exhibits marked inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Resistaphylin is a new antibiotic, because it differs from other antibiotics in certain physico-chemical properties. This communication describes the production, isolation and characterization of resistaphylin.