The Journal of Antibiotics
Online ISSN : 1881-1469
Print ISSN : 0021-8820
ISSN-L : 0021-8820
Volume 25 , Issue 1
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • PAUL PRÄVE, DIETER SUKATSCH, LÁSZLÓ VÉRTESY
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 1-4
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Proticin is a phosphorus-containing, strongly unsaturated amorphous compound with broad activity spectrum, especially against Gram-negative pathogens. It. is produced by fermentation of a strain which has been identified as a form of Bacillus licheniformis. The name proticin has been chosen to suggest a particular activity against Proteus bacteria.
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  • LÁSZLÓ VÉRTESY
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 4-10
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article concerns itself with the purification and characterization of the new antibiotic, proticin (I). Hydrogenation with 8 moles of hydrogen and subsequent esterification of proticin (I) yields derivative (II). On the basis of this derivative and of several degradation products the molecular formula of proticin was found to be C31H44O7PNa. The functional groups of proticin include one OH capable of acetylation, one lactone group, and one monoester of phosphoric acid as enol ester. Proticin contains a conjugated triene. The presence of the triene and of a number of double bonds in the lactone ring as well as the 1, 4 positions of alcohol and phosphate will be discussed.
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  • TOYOKAZU KISHI, HIDEO YAMANA, MASAYUKI MUROI, SETSUO HARADA, MITSUKO A ...
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 11-15
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tolypomycin Y, C43H54N2O14, is a new ansamycin antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tolypophorus. It is a lipophylic neutral substance that crystallizes as yellow needles and has λEtOHmax 232, 290, 337, 370-430 (shoulder) mμ and [α]22D+326° (in EtOH). Tolypomycin Y shows strong in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria and a low acute toxicity.
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  • MASAHIRO KONDO, TOKIKO OISHI, KANJI TSUCHIYA
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 16-24
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tolypomycin-Y and R show a strong in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These antibiotics also inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria to some extent. The antibacterial activities are not influenced by the presence of horse serum in the medium. They are approximately 10-30 times more active at pH 6.0 than at pH 9.0. An enhancement of in vitro activity is observed when the bacterial inoculum size is decreased. The rather rapid development of resistance to tolypomycins is shown in the sensitive bacteria by the serial transfer method. The appearance frequencies of one-step resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus to 1-100mcg/ml of these antibiotics are 2.3-5.8×10-6. Cross resistance is observed between tolypomycins and rifampicin, but it is not observed between tolypomycins and several other antibiotics tested. These antibiotics are effective against staphylococci isolated from patients at concentrations similar to those needed for the standard laboratory staphylococci. Tolypomycins were demonstrated to have bactericidal activity. Tolypomycins administered by subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous routes, are effective against experimental infections in mice caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Diplococcus pneumoniae type I. In addition, some activity is also shown by oral route.
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  • TORU HASEGAWA
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 25-29
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A differential assay method has been investigated in order to distinguish tolypomycin Y from the other components which were produced simultaneously by Streptomyces tolypophorus. About 600 strains were tested for sensitivity to tolypomycin Y and the other components. It was found that the growth of Streptococcus alcalophilus IFO 3531 was inhibited by tolypomycin Y, but not by the other components. The assay method for the differentiation of tolypomycin Y from the other components was established using the paper disc method with Streptococcus alcalophilus IFO 3531.
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  • M. B. ROBERFROLD, P.A. DUMONT
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 30-38
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    After both intravenous injection and oral administration, the factor M1 of virginiamycin was rapidly diluted or absorbed. It then disappeared from the plasma stream at a first order exponential rate with a half life of approximately 5 hours following a process of both tissue fixation and body excretion. The bile was the main route by which the antibiotic was excreted from the body. The ratio CbM1/CpM1 was nearly one, indicating that factor M1 was not actively transported from the liver to the bile though it is extensively metabolized to large polar fragments. After oral ingestion 15-18% of the administrated factor M1 was absorbed through the gastro-intestinal tract. Neither bile nor the lymphatic system seemed to play a role in that absorption. The experimental data emphasized the importance of the plasmatic compartment as a reservoir for the antibiotic, the rapidity of tissular fixation and the special affinity of the factor M1 for the skin. They correlated very well with the clinical trials which revealed the efficiency of the drug in the treatment of the gram-positive bacterial infections and the rapid onset of its action.
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  • M. E. BERGY, H. HOEKSEMA
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 39-43
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Scopafungin is the major component of the non-polyenic endomycin complex which was extracted from Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. enhygrus var. nova and purified by partition column chromatography or silica gel column chromatography followed by crystallization. It is a white crystalline compound which contains carbon (60.95%), hydrogen (9.00%), nitrogen (4.01%) and oxygen (26.46%) and melts at 119.3°C. In methanol, 0.1N HCl in methanol, and 0.1N KOH in methanol, it exhibits maximum UV absorption at 231nm and is dextrorotatory in dimethylformamide, [α]25D+20. Titration in glacial acetic acid indicates an equivalent weight of 1268. Scopafungin is soluble in lower alcohols, glacial acetic acid, acetone - water (3:2) and water-saturated 1-butanol, but is insoluble in water, acetone, ethyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, methylene chloride, chloroform, butanol or ether.
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  • YOHKO KUSAKABE, JUNSAKU NAGATSU, MLTSUO SHIBUYA, OSAMU KAWAGUCHI, CHIE ...
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 44-47
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new crystalline antibiotic, minimycin1), C9H11NO7, was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Isolation and properties of the new antibiotic are described. Minimycin is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also possesses significant antitumor activity against transplantable tumors.
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  • SATOSHI HORII, YUKIHIKO KAMEDA, KUNIO KAWAHARA
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 48-53
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper describes the isolation and characterization of four components of validamycin complex, validamycins C, D, E and F, in addition to validamycins A and B reported in the previous papers1-4), Validamycins A, C, D, E and F are different from each other in the site and/or the type of glucosidic linkage to validoxylamine A5). The presence of validoxylamines A and B5) in the culture nitrate was also demonstrated.
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  • M.A.Q. SIDDIQUI, D. NICHOLSON, PHILIP J. SNIDER
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 54-59
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The action of streptomycin on protein synthesis was examined in vivo and in vitro with Serratia marcescens. At lethal concentrations of streptomycin (10μg/ml and above) inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death appear to be causally related. Lower concentrations of the antibiotic (4-5μg/ml) do not reduce protein synthesis, growth or the viability of the sensitive cells even after prolonged incubation in the presence of the drug. However, ribosomes isolated from cells so treated show partial reduction of ammo acid incorporation in vitro in the absence of added streptomycin. Evidence suggests that subtle structural defects induced during ribosomal synthesis in the presence of the antibiotic and binding of streptomycin to the ribosomes together account for the defective ribosomal functioning during protein synthesis in vitro.
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  • MASAFUMI NAKAO, EIRYO KITANAKA, KAZUYORI OCHIAI, SHOZO NAKAZAWA
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 60-63
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • DAVID WILLNER, CHARLES T. HOLDREGE, STEPHEN R. BAKER, LEE C. CHENEY
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 64-67
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KAZUYA SASAKI, KENNETH L. RINEHART, FREDERICK J. ANTOSZ
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 68-70
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KENNETH L. RINEHART, FREDERICK J. ANTOSZ
    1972 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 71-73
    Published: January 25, 1972
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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