The Journal of Antibiotics
Online ISSN : 1881-1469
Print ISSN : 0021-8820
ISSN-L : 0021-8820
Volume 31 , Issue 5
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • HAROLD C. NEU, KWUNG P. FU
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 385-393
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1-N HAPA gentamicin B is a new aminoglycoside active against most Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Among 504 clinical isolates at a concentration of 12.5 μg/ml all Staph. aureus, Escherichia coil, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus
    rettgeri, Providencia
    and 78% of Pseudomonas, 86% of Proteus morganii were inhibited. Like other aminoglycosides, the activity was greatest at an alkaline pH and reduced by high cations concentrations. 1-N HAPA gentamicin B was equal in activity to amikacin against
    both gentamicin-sensitive and resistant isolates. It inhibited bacteria containing many of the aminoglycoside inactivating enzymes. When combined with carbenicillin it inhibited in a synergistic manner many Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas and Serratia.
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  • H. D. TRESNER, J. H. KORSHALLA, A. A. FANTINI, J. D. KORSHALLA, J. P. ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 394-397
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The producing organism for the new broad spectrum glycocinnamoylspermidine antibiotics designated LL-BM123β, γ1 and γ2 was characterized as a Nocardia sp. by chemical analysis of the cell wall, growth requirements, morphology and physiological reactions.
    Fermentation conditions to elaborate and analytical methods to characterize these antibiotics in fermentation filtrates are described.
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  • J. H. MARTIN, M. P. KUNSTMANN, F. BARBATSCHI, M. HERTZ, G. A. ELLESTAD ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 398-404
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    LL-BM123β, γ1, andγ2 are three new antibiotics produced by fermentation of an
    unidentified species of Nocardia. These strongly basic, water-soluble compounds were isolated
    from the culture filtrate by CM-Sephadex ion-exchange and carbon chromatography.
    All three antibiotics are active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A
    mixture of LL-BM123γ1 andγ1 is more active than the β component but generally less
    active than gentamicin.
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  • N. A. KUCK, G. S. REDIN
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 405-409
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Isopropyl LL-BM123γ, a novel semisynthetic glycocinnamoylspermidine antibiotic, was active in vitro against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with broad spectrum bactericidal activity against clinically important Gram-negative strains. In parallel tests, it was equal to or more potent than reference aminoglycoside antibiotics against Escherichia coli, Proteus, Enterobacter-Klebsiella, Serratia, Salmonella, and Acinetobacter strains. Against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isopropyl LL-BM123γ compared favorably with gentamicin, verdamicin and amikacin but was less potent than tobramycin. Isopropyl LL-BM123γ was active against many Gram-negative bacteria that were relatively resistant to aminoglycosides. It was rapidly absorbed following subcutaneous administration in mice and showed greater potency than gentamicin on both dosage and plasma concentration bases against several experimental infections.
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  • MASATOSHI INUKAI, RYUZO ENOKITA, AKIO TORIKATA, MASAKI NAKAHARA, SEIGO ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 410-420
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new peptide antibiotic, globomycin, was found to be produced by four different strains of the actinomycetes. They were identified as Streptomyces halstedii No. 13912, Streptoverticillium cinnamoneum No. 15037, Streptomyces neohygroscopicus subsp. globomyceticus No. 15631 and Streptomyces hagronensis No. 17834, respectively. Fermentation of globomycin was conducted by conventional submerged culture for antibiotic production, in which 10 μg/ml of globomycin was produced by cultivation of S. halstedii No. 13912 for 96 hours at 27°C.
    Globomycin was named after its activity to form global-shape spheroplasts when Escherichia coli was incubated in the presence of this antibiotic.
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  • MASATOSHI INUKAI, MUTSUO NAKAJIMA, MASAAKI OSAWA, TATSUO HANEISHI, MAM ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 421-425
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The peptide antibiotic globomycin was extracted from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces halstedii No. 13912, purified on silica-gel columns and crystallized from acetonitrile to give colorless needles. It is a neutral substance with m.p. of 115°C and a molecular formula of C32H57N5O9. On amino-acid analysis, it gave serine, threonine, glycine and an unidentified amino acid. It is soluble in methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform but sparingly soluble in water. The antimicrobial spectrum of globomycin revealed its specific activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Formation of spheroplasts was observed when Escherichia coli was grown in the presence of globomycin, indicating inhibition of the bacterial cell wall synthesis as its mode of action.
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  • MUTSUO NAKAJIMA, MASATOSHI INUKAI, TATSUO HANEISHI, AKIRA TERAHARA, MA ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 426-432
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The structure of globomycin has been determined by mass, PMR and CMR spectra and by chemical degradation. Globomycin is a new cyclic peptide antibiotic composed of L-serine, L-allo-threonine, glycine, N-methylleucine, L-allo-isoleucine and 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-nonaic acid. Among these components, L-allo-threonine, L-allo-isoleucine and 3-hydroxy-2-methylnonaic acid are novel components from natural products. A newly developed mass analysis has been introduced for determining the diastereoisomers of allo-threonine.
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  • TOUTARO YAMAGUCHI, HARUO HAYASAKA, HIROTSUGU YOSHIDA, TADAHIRO MATSUSH ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 433-440
    Published: 1978
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Antibiotic M-4365G2 (de-epoxy rosamicin) produced by Micromonospora capillata MCRL 0940 is a new basic 16-membered macrolide antibiotic with activity equal to or superior to erythromycin and josamycin against Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest are the high degree of activity against Gram-negative bacilli and mycoplasmas, and striking inhibitory effects against indole-producing Proteus spp. Bactericidal activity of M-4365G2 is also to be noticed.
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  • RONALD E. CARNEY, JAMES B. MCALPINE, MARIANNA JACKSON, RUTH S. STANASZ ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 441-450
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Attempted removal of the 3'-hydroxyl group of seldomycin factor 5 via displacement of a sulfonate ester has led to 3'-epi-seldomycin factor 5. Removal of the hydroxyl group has been effected by the BARTON procedure. The antibacterial activity of 3'-epi- and 3'-deoxyseldomycin factor 5 against various aminoglycoside-resistant strains is discussed.
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  • WILLIAM ROSENBROOK, Jr., RONALD E. CARNEY, RICHARD S. EGAN, RUTH S. ST ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 451-455
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    7-Deoxy-4(R)-dihydrospectinomycin (7) has been prepared and its structure firmly established by proton magnetic resonance and high resolution mass spectrometry. This spectinomycin analog is devoid of antibiotic activity.
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  • OSAMU MAKABE, AKIHIKO MIYADERA, MITSUHIRO KINOSHITA, SUMIO UMEZAWA, TO ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 456-467
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The syntheses of N1- and N2-isopropylformycin (10, 11), formycin 3', 5'-cyclic and 2', 3'-cyclic phosphate (3, 7) and their N-methyl and N-isopropyl derivatives (13, 15, 19, 23) are described. It was observed that substitution at N1 or N2 with a bulky alkyl group or cyclic phosphorylation of the ribose moiety made formycin resistant to adenosine deaminase.
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  • HIROSHI MAEDA, HIROKO ICHIMURA, HIROSHI SATOH, KENZO OHTSUKI
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 468-472
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The toxicity of the bis-succinyl derivative of the protein antibiotic, neocarzinostatin, was compared with the parent compound, neocarzinostatin (NCS), in rats. The derivative was found to be about two to five fold more active than NCS in vivo. The antitumor activity in rats bearing eleven distinct YOSHIDA hepatoma ascitic cell lines was tested under four possible combinations with regard to sites of drug and tumor cell administration. The results indicate that the antitumor spectrum of the derivative had changed slightly. Antitumor activity in mice was also tested with L1210 and P388 lymphatic leukemia, and with B16 melanocarcinoma. When the effect of the derivative was compared with parental NCS at the molecular level with respect to the inhibition of DNA synthesis in vitro, the specific activities of the two were found to be almost identical. These results were interpreted to indicate that the succinyl derivative of NCS was more stable to inactivation and proteolytic break-down in vivo than NCS as observed previously in in vitro studies.
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  • KANKI KOMIYAMA, IWAO UMEZAWA
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 473-476
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Examination of blood and organ concentrations of sporamycin in normal mice showed a rapid decrease of sporamycin from peripheral blood and a high level of sporamycin in urine 10 minutes after intravenous injection of the antibiotic. At the same time, the highest level was found in the kidneys and low levels were found in the lungs and spleen. When sporamycin was added to mouse organ homogenate at 37°C, remarkable inactivation of sporamycin by the homogenate of the liver, kidney, testis, etc., was noted but this inactivation was slight by tumor homogenate. Sporamycin inhibited the tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA of normal tissues, but a different pattern of inhibition and recovery on the incorporation of 3H-TdR into DNA was observed among mouse organs. It was noted that the antibiotic may damage normal tissues in spite of a rapid excretion and inactivation of sporamycin in mice, but this damage was recovered rapidly within 1-2 days after the treatment.
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  • JOSEPH J. HLAVKA, PANAYOTA BITHA, JAMES BOOTHE, THOMAS FIELDS
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 477-479
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KAZUHIKO OKAMURA, SHOJI HIRATA, YASUSHI OKUMURA, YASUO FUKAGAWA, YASUT ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 480-482
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TAKUZO YAMAMOTO, KATSUHISA KOJIRI, HAJIME MORISHIMA, HIROSHI NAGANAWA, ...
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 483-484
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • C. A. CLARIDGE, W. T. BRADNER, HENRY SCHMITZ
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 485-486
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • A. NESZMÉLYI, H. BOJARSKA-DAHLIG
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 487-489
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • PIJUSH K. DAS, MITALI BASU, GORA C. CHATTERJEE
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 490-492
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TOSHIO NISHIMURA, KEIKO MUTO, NOBUO TANAKA
    1978 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 493-495
    Published: 1978
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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