The Journal of Antibiotics
Online ISSN : 1881-1469
Print ISSN : 0021-8820
ISSN-L : 0021-8820
Volume 32 , Issue 4
Showing 1-25 articles out of 25 articles from the selected issue
  • SATOSHI OMURA, YUZURU IWAI, YOKO TAKAHASHI, NORIAKI SADAKANE, AKIRA NA ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 255-261
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Herbimycin, a new antibiotic, was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus strain No. AM-3672, a soil isolate. The molecular formula of herbimycin was determined to be C30H42N2O9. Herbimycin was found to have potent herbicidal activity against most mono- and di-cotyledonous plants, especially against Cyperus microiria STEUD. However, Oryza sativa showed strong resistance to herbimycin.
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  • KAZUHIKO OKAMURA, SHOJI HIRATA, AKIHIKO KOKI, KOSUMI HORI, NORIO SHIBA ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 262-271
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Antibiotic PS-51) is a new β-lactam antibiotic isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces sp. strain A271. The strain was considered to be a new subspecies of Streptomyces cremeus and the name, Streptomyces cremeus subsp. auratilis, was proposed. Fermentative production, isolation and physico-chemical properties of PS-5 are described.
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  • MICHIKO SAKAMOTO, HIROSHI IGUCHI, KAZUHIKO OKAMURA, SENJI HORI, YASUO ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 272-279
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    PS-5, a new β-lactam antibiotic1), has relatively potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially the Enterobacter groups, Serratia marcescens, the Proteus groups and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The activity of PS-5 against many β-lactamase-producing organisms is greater than that of cefoxitin or cefazolin. PS-5 has good therapeutic activity in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus Smith or Enterobacter cloacae 45.
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  • KAZUHIKO OKAMURA, MICHIKO SAKAMOTO, YASUO FUKAGAWA, TOMOYUKI ISHIKURA, ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 280-286
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    PS-5 was shown to have synergistic activity in combination with other β-lactam antibiotics and it markedly decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration values of ampicillin or cephaloridine with a β-lactamase-producing Proteus vulgaris strain on agar plates. The synergistic activities were also shown in bactericidal activity in liquid medium. PS-5 was shown to be inhibitory against an extracted β-lactamase of P. vulgaris.
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  • I. DETECTION, PROPERTIES AND FERMENTATION STUDIES
    D. BUTTERWORTH, M. COLE, G. HANSCOMB, G. N. ROLINSON
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 287-294
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The screening of soil actinomycetes for β-lactamase inhibitors is described. Using a plate test a number of strains of Streptomyces were found to produce β-lactamase inhibitory activity designated olivanic acid complex. Factors affecting the production of this complex by Streptomyces olivaceus ATCC 21379 are reported. The complex showed antibacterial activity and also inhibited a number of different types of β-lactamase in a progressive manner. Certain ampicillin-resistant bacteria are rendered sensitive to ampicillin in the presence of olivanic acid complex at a concentration which alone did not inhibit growth.
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  • II. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF THE OLIVANIC ACIDS MM 4550, MM 13902 AND MM 17880 FROM STREPTOMYCES OLIVACEUS
    J. D. HOOD, S. J. BOX, M. S. VERRALL
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 295-304
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The olivanic acids MM 4550, MM 13902 and MM 17880 are members of a new family of β-lactam antibiotics. An isolation and purification process utilising ion-pair extraction and ion-exchange chromatography is described and the metabolites are characterized by physico-chemical and biological properties.
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  • STUDIES ON ANTIBIOTICS FROM THE GENUS BACILLUS. XXV
    TOSHIYUKI KATO, RYUJI SAKAZAKI, HIROSHI HINOO, JUN'ICHI SHOJI
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 305-312
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    On examining the structures of the antibiotics tridecaptins B and C, the constituent amino acids were separated and their chiralities were determined. The constituent fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Cleavage with N-bromosuccinimide and sequential analysis by EDMAN degradation demonstrates the sequence of the C-terminal side of tridecaptins B and C. Deacylation with polymyxin acylase of tridecaptin B and successive EDMAN degradation revealed the sequence of the N-terminal side of tridecaptin B. Finally partial acid hydrolysis on tridecaptin C clarified the sequence of the N-terminal side of tridecaptin C.
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  • STUDIES ON ANTIBIOTICS FROM THE GENUS BACILLUS. XXVI
    JUN'ICHI SHOJI, TOSHIYUKI KATO, SHIGERU TERABE, RYUSEI KONAKA
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 313-319
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    By high performance liquid chromatography, cerexin B was separated into four components (B1, B2, B3 and B4), cerexin D into four components (D1, D2, D3 and D4), tridecaptin A into two components (Aα and Aβ), tridecaptin B into four components (Bα, Bβ, Bγ, and Bδ) and tridecaptin C into three components (Cα1, Cα2 and Cβ1). All components were preparatively isolated, and their fatty acid and amino acid compositions determined for structural elucidation.
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  • HIDEO NAKAO, HIROAKI YANAGISAWA, SADAO ISHIHARA, EIJI NAKAYAMA, AKIKO ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 320-329
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial activity of a number of cephalosporins related to cefmetazole (CS-1170) are described.
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  • TOSHIAKI YAMASHITA, NORIYUKI NAOI, TAKAYOSHI HIDAKA, KIYOSHI WATANABE, ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 330-339
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new antitumor antibiotic, named auromomycin, was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces macromomyceticus, a macromomycin-producing strain. The antibiotic was recovered from the culture filtrate by salting out with ammonium sulfate and further purified by successive application of ion-exchange chromatography on Amberlite IRA-93 (Cl form) and DEAE-Sephadex (OH form), Gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and hydrophobic chromatography on Octyl-Sepharose CL-4B. The antibiotic is an acidic polypeptide with a molecular weight of 12, 500 and an isoelectric point of pH 5.4 and consists of 16 different amino acids. It has characteristic absorption maxima at 273 nm and 357 nm in the ultraviolet spectrum and two minima at 280 nm and 350 nm in the optical rotatory dispersion spectrum. Auromomycin exhibits antibacterial activity not only against Gram-positive bacteria, but also Gram-negative bacteria. Antitumor activities of auromomycin were revealed against EHRLICH ascites carcinoma, ascites sarcoma 180, L1210 leukemia and LEWIS lung carcinoma.
    Auromomycin was found to be converted into macromomycin by adsorption chromatography on Amberlite XAD.
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  • TAKAYOSHI HIDAKA, YOSHIAKI YANO, TOSHIAKI YAMASHITA, KIYOSHI WATANABE
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 340-346
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Macromomycin (MCR) is a polypeptide antitumor antibiotic isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces macromomyceticus. Antitumor activities of MCR were examined against three different tumor systems, i.e., EHRLICH ascites carcinoma, L1210 leukemia and LEWIS lung carcinoma. Daily intraperitoneal treatment with MCR for 5 days showed a strong inhibition against EHRLICH ascites carcinoma. Both single and repeated intraperitoneal
    injections of MCR were effective over a wide dose range against intraperitoneally inoculated L1210 leukemia and MCR intravenously administered was also active against intravenously inoculated L1210 leukemia. Daily local subcutaneous injections of MCR produced the prolongation of life span of mice to which LEWIS lung carcinoma was subcutaneously inoculated with some cured mice, but daily intraperitoneal injections of MCR showed no activity. Single intravenous administration of MCR inhibited early LEWIS lung carcinoma, but not advanced LEWIS lung carcinoma. The combination of MCR with aracytidine, or cyclophosphamide showed a synergistic activity against L1210 leukemia. MCR was not inactivated by treatment with serum, although neocarzinostatin was markedly inactivated by the same treatment.
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  • SHUJI OKUBO, NOBUO NAKAMURA, KUNIO ITO, HIROFUTO MARUMO, MASAO TANAKA, ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 347-354
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The antifungal antibiotic, prumycin, was studied for antitumor activity against several tumor systems. It was found to possess potential antitumor activity against a well-established mouse mammary adenocarcinoma in C3H/He mice. It was also active in prolongation of the lifespan of mice bearing P-388 lymphocytic leukemia. Moreover, prumycin did not depress the white blood cell counts in the mouse peripheral blood. However, severe alopecia was observed in mice treated with this agent at dosage levels near the LD50.
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  • M. W. COLEMAN, M. KINNS, M. J. SEWELL
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 355-360
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The 13C-NMR spectra of 1-N-[(S)-4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl]kanamycin A (butikacin) (Fig. 1, 1b) and some of its related compounds have been recorded and are tabulated, assigned and discussed. The chemical shifts of many of the carbon nuclei are shown to be reasonably invariant amongst this series of compounds. A procedure is described for the determination of the (R, S)-epimer ratio of kanamycin A derivatives which have N-substituted groups containing a chiral centre.
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  • H. MAEHR, M. LEACH, L. YARMCHUK, M. MITROVIC
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 361-367
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mocimycin was converted to the acylesters by selective acylation of the hydroxyl group of the 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2(1H)pyridinone moiety. Subsequent N-methylation at the nuclear nitrogen and removal of the protective group from the resulting reaction products afforded aurodox. Mono-O-acetylmocimycin and several analogous aurodox esters thus prepared possess antibacterial activity in vitro and growth-promotion properties in poultry. Esters of aurodox involving the hydroxyl group of the 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2(1H)pyridinone moiety are activated. Accordingly, acetic acid treatment of the aurodox esters generates O-acylgoldinamines which undergo transacylation furnishing N-acylgoldinamines. Alternatively, N-acylgoldinamines can be prepared by selective mono-O-arylsulfonylation of aurodox, liberating O-arylsulfonylgoldinamine by treatment with acetic acid followed by N-acylation and removal of the protective arylsulfonyl group. A third approach to N-acylgoldinamines consists in direct N-acylation of goldinamine itself which is prepared by acetic acid treatment of aurodox. None of these derivatives prepared, however, exhibited significant antimicrobial or growth-promoting properties, suggesting that the goldinonic acid moiety, or a closely related derivative thereof, is required for biological activity.
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  • DAVID T. CONNOR, SYLVESTER KLUTCHKO, MAXIMILLIAN VON STRANDTMANN
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 368-370
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The thermal rearrangement of antifungal antibiotic 1, isolated from Polyangium cellulosum var. fulvum, to cycloheptadiene derivative 2 is described.
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  • MORIYUKI SATO, YASUKI MORI
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 371-378
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Among the new aminoglycoside antibiotic family of fortimicins, components A, C and D have higher activity compared to their 4-N-deacylated components B and KE. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of 4-N-acyl- and 4-N-alkyl-fortimicin B derivatives are described. 4-N-Acylfortimicin B's, which are relatively unstable in alkaline conditions, were converted to stable 4-N-alkyl derivatives with diborane. The activity is greatly affected by the 4-N-substituents,
    and the presence of hydrophilic group(s) is necessary to confer activity on the derivatives. 4-N-(2-Aminoethyl)-, 4-N-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)- and 4-N-(2-hydroxy-4-methylaminobutyl)-fortimicin B are the most potent compounds among them.
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  • FEEDING EXPERIMENTS WITH CARBON-14 AND TRITIUM LABELLED PRECURSORS
    SARASWATHI SINGARAM, REBECCA S. LAWRENCE, ULFERT HORNEMANN
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 379-385
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Feeding experiments and chemical degradations have shown that D-[1-14C, 2-3H]-and-[1-14C, 6-3H] glucosamine, L-[ureido-14C] citrulline, L-[guanidino-14C] arginine and L-[14CH3] methionine specifically label the glucosamine moiety, the urea carbonyl and the N-methyl group of the antibiotic streptozotocin, respectively. Feeding these precursors in amounts of 5-10μmoles per 100 ml of culture medium under conditions where the fermentation yielded approximately 20μmoles of streptozotocin in 24 hours gave incorporation rates which approached 40%. Upon feeding 100μmoles of either D-[1-14C] glucosamine or L-[ureido-14C] citrulline they were incorporated into newly synthesized streptozotocin essentially without dilution by endogeneous precursors. D-[1-14C, 6-3H] Glucosamine was incorporated without change in T/C ratio while 20% of the tritium was lost from D-[1-14C, 2-3H] glucosamine, suggesting the possibility that D-glucosamine can partially equilibrate with D-fructose prior to its incorporation.
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  • MASAAKI OKAMOTO, KANKI KOMIYAMA, HIDEO TAKESHIMA, HIROSHI YAMAMOTO, IW ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 386-391
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sporamycin, an antitumor antibiotic, primarily inhibited DNA synthesis, while RNA and protein synthesis were not significantly affected in HeLa S3 cells. The antibiotic also caused strand scission of cellular DNA. However, the effects were not observed when the cells were incubated at 0°C before washing and subsequently incubated at 37°C. The Tm of calf thymus DNA decreased when incubated with sporamycin in vitro. Sporamycin did
    not affect DNA synthesis in vitro catalyzed by partially purified DNA polymerase α, β, and γ derived from EHRLICH ascites cells.
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  • C. CHOPRA, D. J. HOOK, L. C. VINING, B. C. DAS, S. SHIMIZU, A. TAYLOR, ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 392-401
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Streptomyces griseoviridus produces in addition to etamycin several related compounds which can be separated by partition chromatography. One of these has been characterized by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry and shown to have the same structure as etamycin except for replacement of the hydroxyproline residue by proline. Evidence was obtained for additional congeners similarly related to etamycin by amino acid exchange. The relative proportions of such congeners produced by S. griseoviridus depends upon the medium in which the culture is grown. Certain amino acids support good yields of the metabolites and the culture appears to be steered towards the synthesis of congeners containing such amino acids.
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  • AKIRA SOMEYA, MANABU ISEKI, NOBUO TANAKA
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 402-407
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The binding of [14C]bicyclomycin to whole cells of E. coli and to the inner membrane proteins was inhibited by dithiothreitol and 2-mercaptoethanol. The reactivity of the drug with the sulfhydryl group was further studied, using methanethiol as a model compound. The kinetics revealed that the reaction was of pseudo-first-order in excess of thiolate anion. Analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the main product was an adduct of thiol with bicyclomycin in an equal molar ratio. The structure of the adduct was determined by 1H-NMR spectrometry, showing that thiolate attacked the olefinic double bond of the antibiotic. 3'-Acyl derivatives of bicyclomycin did not significantly affect the binding of [14C] bicyclomycin to inner membrane proteins ofE. coli. The results suggested that 4, 5-double bond hydrocarbons and 3'-hydroxy group of bicyclomycin participate in the binding to E. coli inner membrane proteins, which are presumably the receptors of the antibiotic. The olefinic double bond seems to be the active center of bicyclomycin, reacting with the sulfhydryl group of the receptor protein, although the whole molecule is needed for the activity.
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  • KATALIN BLASKÓ, SÁNDOR GYÖRGYI, ISTVÁN HORV& ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 408-413
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of primycin were investigated on the alkali-cation transport of human erythrocytes and on the electric conduction of bimolecular lipid membranes. In the concentration range of 3•10-6-10-5M primycin increased the permeability of erythrocytes to alkali-cations according to the sequence Cs+>Rb+-K+»ÓÓNa+, while the conductance of the negatively charged phosphatidylserine bimolecular lipid membrane increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude. The resistance-lowering effect of primycin strongly depended on the cationic species applied and a selectivity order Na+>K+>Rb+>Cs+ was found. A possible mechanism of the primycin-membrane interaction is suggested on the basis of experimental data.
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  • CHAO-MIN LIU, THOMAS H. WILLIAMS, Ross G. PITCHER
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 414-417
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • LOUISE FOLEY, JACK T. S. LIN, MANFRED WEIGELE
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 418-419
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
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  • YASUE MATSUZAWA, AKIHIRO YOSHIMOTO, TOSHIKAZU OKI, TAIJI INUI, TOMIO T ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 420-424
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • HARUHIDE KAWABE, HISASHI SAKURAI, KEIJI FUKASAWA, SHOJI SHIMIZU, KATSU ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 425-426
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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