The Journal of Antibiotics
Online ISSN : 1881-1469
Print ISSN : 0021-8820
ISSN-L : 0021-8820
Volume 35 , Issue 9
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • TAXONOMY, FERMENTATION, ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES
    YOKO KUSAKABE, TAKU MIZUNO, SHOZO KAWABATA, SHOJI TANJI, AKIO SEINO, H ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1119-1129
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ferensimycin A* (I), C34H59O10Na, mp 133-135°C, and ferensimycin B** (II), C35H61O10Na, mp 143-145°C, were isolated as their sodium salts from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. No. 5057, a strain similar to Streptomyces myxogenes Shomura et al. The physicochemical data of I and II showed that they are both closely related congeners of lysocellin (III). Ferensimycins A and B exhibit activity against Gram-positive bacteria and are effective in the treatment of coccidiosis of fowl.
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  • I. FERMENTATION, ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
    SATOSHI TAMAI, MIYUKI KANEDA, SHOSHIRO NAKAMURA
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1130-1136
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new antifungal antibiotic, named piperazinomycin, was isolated from the cultured broth of Streptoverticillium olivoreticuli subsp. neoenacticus. The antibiotic was obtained from the mycelial cake by extraction with methanol and also from the broth filtrate by adsorption on Amberlite XAD-2 and subsequent elution with aqueous acetone. The antibiotic is of basic and lipophilic nature and can be extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone at alkaline pH. Its purification was carried out by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and then on Sephadex G-15 followed by preparative thin-layer chromatography on silica gel. The molecular formula of piperazinomycin was determined to be C18H20N2O2 by high resolution mass spectrum and the spectroscopic and chemical properties were examined. Piperazinomycin showed inhibitory activity against fungi and yeasts, especially against Trichophyton.
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  • II. STRUCTURE DETERMINATION BY X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
    MIYUKI KANEDA, SATOSHI TAMAI, SHOSHIRO NAKAMURA, TOSHIFUMI HIRATA, YOS ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1137-1140
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The structure and absolute configuration of piperazinomycin have been established by X-ray crystallographic analysis of its monohydrobromide.
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  • I. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS PRODUCED BY GLUCONOBACTER SP. W-315
    TOSHIHIKO WATANABE, KAZUO IZAKI, HAJIME TAKAHASHI
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1141-1147
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new antibiotic, tentatively named as AB-315, was isolated from the fermentation broth of Gluconobacter sp. W-315. The antibiotic consists of a mixture of chemically related compounds. These compounds showed similar profiles in UV absorbancy. The antibiotics were active against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, slightly active against fungi but not against yeasts.
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  • II. SCREENING OF ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCERS AND TAXONOMICAL PROPERTIES OF GLUCONOBACTER SP. W-315
    TOSHIHIKO WATANABE, KAZUO IZAKI, HAJIME TAKAHASHI
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1148-1155
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Antibiotic producing bacteria were selected using a new screening method. Eight strains of antibiotic producing bacteria, which required a spent medium of fungi for antibiotic production, were isolated. One of them, a potent producer of antibacterial antibiotic, designated strain W-315, had following taxonomical characteristics; aerobic, Gram-negative, rod shaped and polar flagellated. Furthermore, the organism could grow under acidic conditions (pH 4.5) and had a GC content of 64.4 mole per cent. We concluded that the strain W-315 belonged to Gluconobacter sp. When this bacterium was inoculated into Czapek-Dox medium, bacterial growth and antibiotic production did not occur. The antibiotic production was also not observed even when poor growth was observed in Czapek-Dox medium supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The nutritional requirements for the antibiotic production were also discussed.
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  • II. TAXONOMIC STUDIES ON THE PRODUCING MICROORGANISM
    SHINJURO NAMIKI, KUNIO KANGOURI, TAKATOSHI NAGATE, HIROSHI HARA, KAZUH ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1156-1159
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Streptomyces sp. TM-521 which produced α-glucoside hydrolase inhibitors, adiposins1), was isolated from a soil sample collected in Hoya City, Tokyo. The strain belonged to the "gray color" series type of the ISP -classified Streptomyces. From the taxonomic studies, the strain TM-521 resembled with Streptomyces calvus2) in the morphological and physiological properties. This strain was accordingly identified as a strain of Streptomyces calvus.
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  • III. α-GLUCOSIDE HYDROLASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN VITRO
    KUNIO KANGOURI, SHINJURO NAMIKI, TAKATOSHI NAGATE, HIROSHI HARA, KAZUH ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1160-1166
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Adiposin-1 and -2 exhibited potent inhibitory activities against α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and disaccharidases isolated from porcine small intestine. The effect of adiposin-1 and -2 on hydrolysis of glucoamylase was non-competitive. Adiposin showed antimicrobial activities against some Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, some anaerobic bacteria and some phytopathogenic fungi, and showed a synergistic effect on the antibacterial activity with some maltooligosaccharides. However, these antibacterial activities were suppressed by addition of various other saccharides.
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  • IV. EFFECT OF ADIPOSIN ON INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
    SHINJURO NAMIKI, KUNIO KANGOURI, TAKATOSHI NAGATE, HIROSHI HARA, KAZUH ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1167-1173
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Adiposins showed a potent inhibitory activity against α-glucoside hydrolases such as salivary and pancreatic α-amylases, and intestinal disaccharidases in vivo. They suppressed the increase of the blood glucose level and the secretion of insulin in mice and rats which both had been fasted and then forced-fed on cooked corn starch, sucrose or maltose. The suppression of the increase in the body weight gains, and of the secretion of insulin and triglyceride in blood were observed in the experimental animals which were given diet containing adiposins.
    Hematological and histopathological examinations of animals treated with adiposins did not reveal any remarkable changes after a 3 months toxicity test. Adiposins did not show any intravenous acute toxicity in mice at dose levels (p.o.) less than 10 g/kg of body weight.
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  • J. A. BUSH, W. T. BRADNER, K. TOMITA
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1174-1183
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    An actinomycete, isolated from a soil sample from Ontario, Canada, was studied taxonomically and named Actinosporangium bohemicum sp. nov. strain C-36, 145. This strain was found to produce a complex mixture of ε-pyrromycinone glycosides having antitumor properties. Marcellomycin, a member of this complex, was selected for further study. Conditions for production of this antibiotic were developed in flask studies and scaled-up to the 3, 000-liter fermentor stage.
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  • ROKUROU MASUMA, YOSHITAKE TANAKA, SATOSHI OMURA
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1184-1193
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    Addition of a natural zeolite, a known ammonium ion-trapping agent, to a complex medium resulted in a several fold increase in cerulenin production by Cephalosporium caerulens. In the presence of zeolite, ammonium ion in the medium decreased, while mycelial growth increased to a small extent, and pH values remained constant. Small amounts of ammonium bicarbonate inhibited cerulenin production without affecting mycelial growth and pH values. It is thus assumed that zeolite stimulated cerulenin production by releasing the biosynthesis from the suppression by ammonium ions in C. caerulens.
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  • U. WEISS, K. YOSHIHIRA, R. J. HIGHET, R. J. WHITE, T. T. WEI
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1194-1201
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The yellow antibiotic chrysomycin, isolated in crystalline form in 1955, is found to consist of two closely related components, a major one, chrysomycin A, and a minor one, chrysomycin B. They differ only through the replacement of a vinyl group of chrysomycin A by methyl in chrysomycin B. The absorption spectrum of chrysomycin A is identical with that of the antitumor antibiotic toromycin (gilvocarcin V, 2064A), while that of chrysomycin B is similarly identical with the one of gilvocarcin M (2064B). The structures of these antibiotics (toromycin, the gilvocarcins, and 2064A and B) have been elucidated recently. Chrysomycins A and B thus contain the same chromophores as gilvocarcins V and M, respectively; comparison of 1H and 13C NMR spectra confirms this identity. The chrysomycins differ from these other antibiotics in the C-glycosidic side-chain, which is a methylpentose in the gilvocarcins, a 3, 5-dimethylpentose in the chrysomycins. Structure and relative configuration of the latter are given. The biological activity and possible biosynthesis of the chrysomycins are discussed.
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  • CATALYTIC N-DEMETHYLATION OF SPECTINOMYCIN
    RICHARD C. THOMAS
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1202-1207
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Treatment of an aqueous solution of spectinomycin dihydrochloride with oxygen and platinum black results in N-demethylation, affording the partially and fully N-demethylated spectinomycins in good yield. The 1:1 mixture of mono-N-demethylspectinomycins has an over all reduced bioactivity relative to the parent, whereas N, N'-didemethylspectinomycin is nearly devoid of biological activity.
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  • OSAMU HARA, TERUHIKO BEPPU
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1208-1215
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    The effect of A-factor on streptomycin resistance and productivity in Streptomyces griseus and S. bikiniensis was studied using A-factor-negative mutants. Resistance of several of these mutants was markedly increased by adding A-factor to the growing medium, as also was their streptomycin productivity. The A-factor induced resistance was due to inactivation by streptomycin-6-phosphotransferase, and enzyme synthesis in these mutants was completely dependent on the presence of A-factor. In the case of S. griseus 2247 where streptomycin productivity was independent of A-factor, resistance and synthesis of the inactivating enzyme were also independent of A-factor. A-Factor-negative mutants of S. griseus showed a decreased level of NADP-glycohydrolase and an increased level of several NADP-linked dehydrogenases, but these enzymes did not return to parental levels in cultures supplemented with A-factor. A-Factor seems to regulate streptomycin biosynthesis, not through an indirect metabolic sequence involving these enzymes but, more likely, by directly stimulating synthesis of enzyme(s) in the biosynthetic pathway.
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  • X. PROPERTIES OF PHOSPHO-N-ACETYLMURAMOYL- PENTAPEPTIDE-TRANSFERASE IN PEPTIDOGLYCAN SYNTHESIS OF BACILLUS MEGATERIUM AND ITS INHIBITION BY AMPHOMYCIN
    HARUO TANAKA, RUIKO OIWA, SHIGEKAZU MATSUKURA, JUNJI INOKOSHI, SATOSHI ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1216-1221
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The phospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide-transferase from Bacillus megaterium KM was characterized by the transfer reaction. The particulate enzyme preparation had the activity to transfer phospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide from UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide to undecaprenoid-1-ol-phosphate. The optimum pH for activity was about 8.5. The reaction required the presence of Mg2+ and an SH-protector. With 25 mM Mg2+ the maximum activity was observed. The reaction was reversible and so the addition of UMP decreased the formation of undecaprenoid-1-ol-diphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide. Amphomycin inhibited non-competitively the transferase for the substrate UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide.
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  • YOSHIKAZU SUGIMOTO, HIDEO SUZUKI, HIROSHI YAMAKI, TOSHIO NISHIMURA, NO ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1222-1230
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    An inhibitor of alkaline phosphodiesterase was isolated from a soil Streptomyces. The agent was identified with 2-crotonyloxymethyl-4, 5, 6-trihydroxycyclohex-2-enone (COTC) by UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectrometry. The mechanism of tumor-inhibitory action of COTC was studied with murine lymphoblastoma L5178Y cells. COTC blocked alkaline phosphodiesterase; IC50 was 60 μg/ml by the method employed. The growth of L5178Y cells was inhibited by COTC; IC50 was 4.4 μg/ml. DNA biosynthesis was preferentially prevented by COTC over RNA and protein syntheses; IC50 of DNA synthesis was 7-25 μg/ml. COTC significantly inhibited DNA polymerase α even in the presence of dithiothreitol. The mitosis was markedly blocked by COTC; complete inhibition was observed at a drug concentration of 20 μg/ml. driamycin-, aclarubicin- and bleomycin-resistant cell sublines showed collateral sensitivity to COTC. COTC and aclarubicin exhibited synergistic activity on aclarubicin-resistant cells, but not on the parental cells. COTC increased uptake of [3H]adriamycin or blocked the drug efflux in the resistant cells, but not in the parental cells. The effects of COTC on macromolecular syntheses, mitosis and membrane functions may be attributed to the interaction with the sulfhydryl group of various enzymes. Although COTC is a multifunctional drug, the inhibition of DNA polymerase α and a certain mitotic process seems to be related to the lethal action.
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  • PAUL F. WILEY, JAMES M. KOERT, LADISLAV J. HANKA
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1231-1233
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
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    In the course of a screening program for antitumor antibiotics, two new antibiotics elaborated by Paecilomyces abruptus were isolated. One of these (CC-1014) has been demonstrated to be a polypeptide, and the other is most probably a polypeptide as its properties are very similar to those of CC-1014.
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  • I. ISOLATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES
    SHINJURO NAMIKI, KUNIO KANGOURI, TAKATOSHI NAGATE, HIROSHI HARA, KAZUH ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1234-1236
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • SOHEI TANABE, MASAO OKUCHI, MASAHITO NAKAYAMA, SHIGERU KIMURA, AKIO IW ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1237-1239
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • DAISAKU OKUYAMA, HIKARU NAKAMURA, HIROSHI NAGANAWA, TOMOHISA TAKITA, H ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1240-1242
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
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  • X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF MYCINOLIDE IV
    MITSUO HAYASHI, KENJI KINOSHITA, SHUZO SATOI, KAZUMI NAKATSU
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1243-1244
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
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  • TSUTOMU TSUCHIYA, TAKAHIRO TORII, SUMI OUMEZAWA, HAMAO UMEZAWA
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1245-1247
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • AURORA SANFILIPPO, COSTANTINO DELLA BRUNA, DANIELA JABES, ENZA MORVILL ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1248-1251
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • I. LATOSILLAN, A NEW INDUCER OF THE DIFFERENTIATION OF M1 CELLS
    YOICHI HAYAKAWA, MASAYA NAKAGAWA, TAKESHI ANDO, AKIRA SHIMAZU, HARUO S ...
    1982 Volume 35 Issue 9 Pages 1252-1254
    Published: 1982
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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