Four novel triprenyl phenol metabolites, designated SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6, have been isolated from cultures of Stachybotrys microspora IFO 30018 by solvent extraction and successive chromatographic fractionation using silica gel and silica ODS columns. A combination of spectroscopic analyses showed that SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6 are staplabin analogs, containing a serine, a phenylalanine, a leucine or a tryptophan moiety in respective molecules in place of the N-carboxybutyl portion of the staplabin molecule. SMTP-4, -5, and -6 were active at 0.15∼0.3 mM in enhancing urokinase-catalyzed plasminogen activation and plasminogen binding to fibrin, as well as plasminogen- and urokinase-mediated fibrinolysis. On the other hand, the concentration of staplabin required to exert such effects was 0.4∼0.6 mM, and SMTP-3 was inactive at concentrations up to 0.45 mM.
Compounds BM2419-1 and -2 were isolated from a culture broth of a fungus Paecilomyces sp. BM2419. It was shown that these novel compounds were artifacts derived from saintopin, a dual inhibitor of topoisomerase I and II by independent processes. In the human topoisomerase I inhibition assay using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BM2419-1 and -2 inhibited selectively the yeast growth dependent on human topoisomerase I induction with IC50 values of 0.3 ng/ml and 6.0 ng/ml, respectively.
A novel macrolide, apicularen A, was produced by several species of the genus Chondromyces. Initially it was discovered by bioassay-guided RP-HPLC-fractionation of culture extracts of Chondromyces robustus, strain Cm a13. Apicularen A showed no antimicrobial activity, but was highly cytotoxic for cultivated human and animal cells, with IC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 3 ng/ml. A cometabolite of apicularen A, the N-acetylglucosamine glycoside apicularen B, was distinctly less cytotoxic with IC50 values between 0.2 and 1.2 μg/ml, and showed weak activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria. Apicularen A is chemically closely related to the salicylihalamides A and B from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.
A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.
Antibacterial antibiotics, diperamycin (1) was produced in the culture broth of Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. Various spectroscopic analyses of 1 suggested that 1 belonged to a member of cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic. Antibiotic 1 had potent inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria including Enterococcus seriolicida and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
An Actinomycete strain A499 belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis or Amycolata isolated from a Western Australian soil sample produced the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic quinaldopeptin (1), together with the actinotetraose hexatiglate (2), the hexa-ester of a novel non-reducing glucotetraose.
We examined the inhibitory activity against bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis, mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis and growth of BALB/3T3 cells of four different types of liposidomycins which have the structure with or without sulfate and/or 3-methylglutaric acid moieties. Liposidomycins inhibited peptidoglycan biosynthesis about 30∼500 times more effectively than tunicamycin, whereas liposidomycins inhibited mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis about 30∼300 times less effectively than tunicamycin. When the cytotoxic effect of liposidomycins and tunicamycin on the growth of mammalian cells were compared, liposidomycins did not show toxicity against BALB/3T3 cell at 25 μg/ml, though tunicamycin inhibited cell growth by 50% at 0.05 μg/ml. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that liposidomycins are selective antibiotics showing highly specific inhibition toward bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis.