A series of 9 lactonic lipopeptide bio surfactants was isolated from Bacillus licheniformis IM 1307 as representatives of the lichenysin group and we propose to name them lichenysins G. They were recovered from the culture medium as complex mixtures of molecules having different pep tide sequences and different structures of β-hydroxy fatty acids. Their separation was achieved by a reversed-phase HPLC method leading to eight well-separated compounds. The complete structure of individual isoforms was proposed following the results of amino acid and fatty acid analysis, LSI-MS and 2D NMR spectroscopies. Compared to surfactin, lichenysins G are at least 10 fold more efficient biosurfactants.
The novel peptide feglymycin has been isolated from cultures of Streptomyces sp. DSM 11171 by solid phase extraction, size exclusion chromatography and repeated reversed-phase chromatography. The molecular weight was found to be 1900.90g/mol and the molecular formula is C95H97N13O30. Feglymycin contains 13 amino acids of which four are 3-hydroxyphenylglycine and five are 3, 5-dihydroxyphenylglycine residues. The structure of the linear peptide has been determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The sequence was confirmed by the observed mass spectroscopic fragmentation pattern. As well as having weak antibacterial activity, feglymycin inhibits the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro.
A novel bacterium designated as Aeromonas sp. W-10 produces the antibiotic W-10 complex which comprises of two major and several minor components. The two major components from this complex, Sch 20562 (1) and Sch 20561 (1a), are of biological interest in view of their potent antifungal activity. The chemical degradation studies utilized for the assignment of structure 1 for Sch 20562 are described here. Some of the noteworthy diversity of structural features in this glucosidic cyclic dehydrononapeptide lactone 1 are: an N-terminal (D)-β-hydroxymyristyl unit, three D-amino acid units, two (E)-α-aminocrotonyl units, and an O-α-D-glucosyl-N-methyl-L-allo-threonine unit. The structure determination of 1 utilized the selective cleavage of the dehydropeptide units by ozonolysis to form fragments that were sequenced by mass spectrometry. The stereochemistry of the amino acid units were assigned by isolation of the free amino acids from the hydrolysates of the fragments. The stereochemistry of the α-aminocrotonyl units and the glucosidic linkage were assigned by nmr spectroscopy and molecular rotation data.
Antibiotic W-10 is a fermentation complex produced by the bacterium Aeromonas sp. W-10. The cyclic dehydropeptide lactones Sch 20562 (1) and Sch 20561 (2) are the major components of this fermentation complex and are of biological interest in view of their unique structural features and potent antifungal activity. The chemical degradation studies that were utilized in the assignment of structure 2 for Sch 20561 are described here. The structure determination of 2 made use of the ozonolytic cleavage of the dehydropeptide units to form fragments that were sequenced by mass spectrometry. The cyclic dehydropeptide lactone Sch 20561 (2) was found to be the aglycone of Sch 20562 (1) and these two natural products were correlated by a chemical transformation involving the deglucosidation of 1 to form 2.