A series of reduced benzo[j]fluoranthen-3-ones (1-4) was isolated from fermentations of a fungal strain CBUK20700 (CBS 100220), classified as Cladosporium cf. cladosporioides, during a microbial extract screening programme to identify inhibitors of anti-CD2 8-induced interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by Jurkat E6-1 cells as potential immunosuppressive agents. These compounds were also found to be tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including the HMQC, HMBC and NOESY NMR experiments. The most potent compound in the series, (6bS, 7R, 8S)-7-methoxy-4, 8, 9-trihydroxy-1, 6b, 7, 8-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[j]fluoranthen-3-one (1) inhibited anti-CD28-induced IL-2 production and Abl tyrosine kinase with IC50 values of 400 and 60 nM respectively. The 6b-stereoisomeric 2 was a moderate inhibitor of both IL-2 production and Abl tyrosine kinase while the 8-oxo derivative 3 was inactive in both assays. The 8-O-methyl ether 4 was a moderate inhibitor of IL-2 production but exhibited potent inhibition of Abl tyrosine kinase with an IC50 of 45 nM.
In the course of screening for inhibitors of intracellular trafficking of glycoprotein, a new inhibitor, F13459 was isolated from the culture broth of a Penicillium sp. It was purified using solvent extraction, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS column chromatography. From structural analysis, F13459 was a derivative of mycophenolic acid, an inhibitor of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase. F13459 inhibited hemagglutinin synthesis of NDV at concentrations more than 25 μg/ml. However, syncytium formation as a result of cell surface expression of F-glycoprotein of NDV was inhibited at concentrations of F13459 lower than those required for appreciable inhibition of glycoprotein synthesis.
F13459 is a new inhibitor of synthesis and trafficking of virus glycoprotein isolated from the culture broth of a Penicillium sp. The molecular formula of F13459 was determined to be C27H28O11 by HRFAB-MS and NMR spectral analyses. The structure of F13459 was elucidated to be 3, 4-dihydro-3, 4., 6, 84etrahydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzopyran-1-one 4-O-mycophenolate, an ester derivative of mycophenolic acid. F13459 was isolated as the optically inactive form. F13459 exists in epimeric mixtures at C-3' through relatively fast hemiacetal-ketone tautomerism and at C-4' through slow keto-enol tautomerism. Those epimerizations were confirmed by NOE differential experiments for fast chemical exchange and equilibrium and by deuteration experiments in NMR for slow chemical exchange.
Seedlings of rhododendron were treated by adding Streptomyces sp. strain R-5, actinomycin D and/or amphotericin B to the tissue-culture medium. HPLC analysis showed that all of the treated seedlings contained these antibiotics at concentrations higher than the suppressive levels to mycelial growth of Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, a major pathogen of rhododendron. Occurrence of disease caused by this fungus in the seedlings was suppressed by treatment of the medium surface with strain R-5, but not by treatment with these antibiotics, suggesting that growth of strain R-5, an antibiotic producer, could be essential for induction of disease resistance in tissue-cultured seedlings of rhododendron.
A series of 3-keto-9-O-substituted oxime derivatives of 6-O-methyl erythromycin A were prepared with a novel synthetic route, which include 6 reaction steps-oximation, protection, hydrolysis, oxidation, deprotection and addition. The antibacterial activity of these compounds were tested in vitro against both erythrornycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant organisms. Several of these derivatives showed improved antibacterial activity against some erythromycin-resistant organisms as compared to erythromycin A.