In our screening of actinomycetes from the marine environment for bioactive components, a new antibiotic with a novel structure designated as parimycin was obtained from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. isolate B8652. The structure of the new antibiotic was determined by spectroscopic methods and by comparison of the NMR data with those of the structurally related γ-indomycinone.
A new antifungal antibiotic, YM-202204 (1), was found in the culture broth of marine fungus Phoma sp. Q60596. The structure of 1 was determined by several spectroscopic experiments as a new lactone compound. This antibiotic exhibited potent antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus, and also inhibited glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchoring in yeast cells.
A novel dehydrogenated cyclic dipeptide named as dehydrophenylahistin (ΔPLH) was effectively prepared from a fungal metabolite (-)-phenylahistin by the enzymatic conversion catalyzed by the cell-free extract of Streptomyces albulus KO-23, an albonoursin-producing actinomycete. ΔPLH exhibited more than 1, 000 times as high potent inhibitory activity toward the first cleavage of sea urchin embryos as (-)-phenylahisitn which has been reported to be cell cycle inhibitor and more than 10, 000 as high as albonoursin, indicating that ΔPLH is a promising leading compound for anticancer drugs.
Beauveriolides I and III, cyclic depsipeptides composed of L-Phe, L-Ala, D-Leu and (3S, 4S)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid, and L-Phe, L-Ala, L-allo-Ile and (3S, 4S)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid, respectively, were previously isolated from the culture broth of fungal Beauveria sp. FO-6979 as inhibitors of macrophage foam cell formation. To improve the production of these compounds by fermentation, the culture conditions were studied. The production of both beauveriolides was increased five to ten folds by fermentation in the culture media containing tryptone. Further study revealed that addition of L-Leu/L-Ile, but not D-Leu/D-allo-Ile, to the culture medium yielded a high and selective production of beauveriolide I or III. As a result, regardless of their separation difficulty due to the similar physico-chemical properties, a large amount of beauveriolide I or III was prepared from the culture broth obtained from L-Leu-or L-Ile-supplemented fermentation, respectively, by one step purification using silica gel column chromatography.
We previously reported that a 4.2kb SacI-EcoRI DNA region from Streptomyces kasugaensis M338-M1, a kasugamycin (KSM) producer, included KSM transporter genes (kasKLM). As an extension of that study, a 3.7kb PstI-SacI DNA region, located at 1.5-5.2kb upstream of kasK, was cloned and sequenced, revealing three complete open reading frames, designated kasT, kasU and kasJ. The kasJ gene encodes a protein (KasJ) with a conserved dinucleotide (FAD)-binding motif. Homology search for KasJ showed its similarity to NADH: N-amidino-scyllo-inosamine oxidoreductase (StsB) which is involved in biosynthesis of the streptidine moiety of streptomycin (SM) in S. griseus. The kasT gene encodes a DNA-binding protein (KasT), including a helix-turn-helix motif near the center of the sequence. This protein is similar in structure to a pathway-specific activator protein (StrR) that plays a role in regulating the SM biosynthesis gene cluster of S. griseus. A fusion protein (Trx-KasT) clearly showed DNA binding activity with the intergenic region of kasU-kasJ, suggesting that KasT is a pathway-specific regulator of the KSM biosynthesis gene cluster.
Staurosporine is a representative member of indolocarbazole antibiotics. The entire staurosporine biosynthetic and regulatory gene cluster spanning 20-kb was cloned from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0274 and sequenced. The gene cluster consists of 14 ORFs and the amino acid sequence homology search revealed that it contains three genes, staO, staD, and staP, coding for the enzymes involved in the indolocarbazole aglycone biosynthesis, two genes, staG and staN, for the bond formation between the aglycone and deoxysugar, eight genes, staA, staB, staE, staJ, staI, staK, staMA, and staMB, for the deoxysugar biosynthesis and one gene, staR is a transcriptional regulator. Heterologous gene expression of a 38-kb fragment containing a complete set of the biosynthetic genes for staurosporine cloned into pTOYAMAcos confirmed its role in staurosporine biosynthesis. Moreover, the distribution of the gene for chromopyrrolic acid synthase, the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of indolocarbazole aglycone, in actinomycetes was investigated, and rebD homologs were shown to exist only in the strains producing indolocarbazole antibiotics.