New inhibitors of IL-4 signal transduction, designated as TMC-256A1 and C1, were discovered together with TMC-256B1, a previously known dihydronaphthopyrone, from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus niger var niger TC 1629 by using an IL-4 driven reporter gene assay. Based on spectroscopic analyses, TMC-256A1 and C1 were found to be new members of the naphthopyrone antibiotics. TMC-256A1, B1 and C1 inhibited the IL-4 driven luciferase activity with IC50 values of 25μM, 30μM and 1.7μM, respectively in this assay system. Furthermore, these compounds inhibited the expression of germline Cε mRNA with IC50 values of 6.6μM, 34μM and 0.31μM, respectively.
Aspergillin PZ was obtained from the fermentation of Aspergillus awamori (Nakazawa) by activity-guided fractionation and purification. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral data, especially by 2D NMR, and finally confirmed by an X-ray analysis. It could induce conidia of P. oryzae to deform moderately.
Three new natural antibacterial and antifungal dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics were isolated along with the known iso-butyropyrrothine and thiolutine from the fermentation broth of an actinomycete strain which was isolated from a saharian palm grove soil collected at Adrar, south Algeria. The strain was identified as Saccharothrix sp. The three new antibiotics exhibited broad antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts and fungi in vitro.
Three new natural dithiopyrrolone antibiotics, 3-methyl-2-butenoylpyrrothine (1), tigloylpyrrothine (2), and n-butyropyrrothine (3) were isolated along with the known iso-butyropyrrothine (4) and thiolutin (5) from the fermentation broth of Saccharothrix sp. SA 233. The structures of the novel compounds were established on the basis on their spectral data.
Using inverse PCR, two new genes (btrN and btrS) were identified upstream of the putative glycosyltransferase gene btrM in the butirosin-biosynthetic btr gene cluster of Bacillus circulans. The upstream gene btrS showed significant homology with stsC of Streptomyces griseus, which encodes L-glutamine: scyllo-inosose aminotransferase in the biosynthesis of streptomycin. The function of BtrS was further confirmed by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and chemical identification of the conversion of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose into 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine. The identification of BtrS as L-glutamine: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose aminotransferase is the first report of the aminotransferase gene responsible for 2-deoxystreptamine biosynthesis.
The structures of argyrins A-H were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy, chemical degradation and X-ray analysis as cyclic octapeptides. Argyrins A and B, in addition to the common amino acids tryptophan, glycine, dehydroalanine and alanine or α-aminobutyric acid, sarcosine, contain 2-(1-aminoethyl)thiazol-4-caboxylic acid and the novel amino acid 4'-methoxytryptophan. In argyrins C and D the latter is replaced by 4'-methoxy 2'-methyltryptophan. According to NMR analysis the solution and crystal conformations of argyrins A and B are identical in CDCl3 and slightly different in acetone-d6. Argyrins A and B are identical with the antibiotics A21459 A and B, whose structures are revised with respect to 4'-methoxytryptophan.
Discovery of novel antimicrobial agents effective against infections caused by drugresistant pathogens is an important objective. In order to find a new parenteral carbapenem antibiotic, which has potent antibacterial activity especially against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, a series of 1β-methylcarbapenems with thiazol-2-ylthio groups at the C-2 position have been synthesized. Structure-activity relationships were investigated which led to SM-197436 (27), SM-232721 (44) and SM-232724 (41), being selected for further evaluation.