EI-2346, a novel interleukin-1β converting enzyme (ICE) inhibitor, was isolated from the culture broths of Streptomyces sp. E-2346. EI-2346 selectively inhibited the human recombinant ICE activity with an IC50 value of 3.9μM, without inhibiting elastase and cathepsin B. EI-2346 also inhibited mature interleukin-1β secretion from THP-1 cells induced by LPS with an IC50 value of 5.2μM.
New melanin synthesis inhibitors, melanocins A, B and C, were isolated from the fermentation broth and mycelium extract of Eupenicillium shearii F80695. Melanocin A, an isocyanide compound, inhibited mushroom tyrosinase and melanin biosynthesis of B16 melanoma cells with IC50 value of 9.0nM and MIC value of 0.9μM, respectively. Melanocin A also inhibited growth of Streptomyces bikiniensis. While, the structurally very related but non-isocyanide compounds melanocins B and C did not show inhibitory activity in these assays. Melanocins A, B and C showed potent antioxidant activity with scavenging activity of DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical.
New melanin synthesis inhibitors, melanocins A, B and C, were isolated from the fermentation broth and extract of mycelium of Eupenicillium shearii F80695. The structures of melanocins were established by spectroscopic methods. They are formamide compounds. In particular, melanocin A has an isocyanide group.
Novel antibiotics named kigamicin A, B, C, D, and E were discovered from the culture broth of Amycolatopsis sp. ML630-mF1 by their selective killing activity against PANC-1 cells only under a nutrient starved condition. Under a condition of nutrient starvation, kigamicins A, B, C, and D inhibited PANC-1 cell survival at 100 times lower concentration than in normal culture. Kigamicins showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Kigamicin D inhibited the growth of various mouse tumor cell lines at IC50 of about 1μg/ml.
Kigamicin A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4) and E (5) are novel antitumor antibiotics. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses including various NMR measurements. Kigamicins have a unique aglycone of fused octacyclic ring system containing seven of sixmembered rings and one oxazolidine. The aglycone links a sugar chain composed of one to four deoxysugars. These sugars were found to be amicetose and oleandrose.
HIV-1 integrase is one of the three enzymes that are critical for replication and spread of HIV and its inhibition is one of the most promising new drug targets for anti-retroviral therapy with potential advantage over existing therapies. This paper describes the isolation and structure elucidation of exophillic acid, a novel dimeric 2, 4-dihydroxy alkyl benzoic acid, derived from Exophiala pisciphila, a fungus isolated from a soil sample collected in Georgia, USA. Exophillic acid (1) and aquastatin A (2), a related compound, inhibited the strand transfer reaction of HIV-1 integrase with IC50 values of 68 and 50μM, respectively.
Arborcandins A, B, C, D, E and F, which possess potent 1, 3-β-glucan synthase inhibitory activity, were isolated from the cultured broth of a filamentous fungus, strain SANK 17397. The structures of arborcandins A, B, C, D, E and F were elucidated by a combination of NMR and mass spectrometry, and established to be novel cyclic peptides containing uncommon amino acid residues.
Inhibitors of the enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) have been reported as antibacterial agents. These include thiolactomycin, cerulenin, triclosan, diazoborine, naphthyridinones, aminopyridines and pyridoindoles. Our search for new FAB inhibitors, using a lacZ reporter cell-based screen, led to several confirmed hits. Culture F92S91, later identified as a Pseudomonas sp. based on 16S profiling, was found to produce two α-pyrones (I and II) and three high molecular weight peptides. The pyrones were unstable under acidic conditions, and they were rearranged into a furanone derivative (III). Of these compounds, pyrone I was the most active with MICs (μg/ml) against B. subtilis (1-2), MRSA (2-4), M. catarrhalis (4) and VRE (2-64). Effects on macromolecular synthesis and membrane functions were tested in B. subtilis. Pyrone I nonspecifically inhibited incorporation of radiolabeled precursors into DNA, RNA and protein within 5 minutes of drug exposure, similar to that of triclosan. Both compounds also inhibited the cellular uptake of these precursors. Cerulenin did not have an effect until 30 minutes of drug treatment. Pyrone I and triclosan were membrane-active (BacLight test); however, pyrone I (at≤128μg/ml concentration) was not hemolytic to human RBCs in contrast to triclosan, which was hemolytic at 16μg/ml. These data suggest that pyrone-I, unlike triclosan, selectively affects bacterial membrane function.
The set of sensor kinase YycG and response regulator YycF is the only essential two-component system (TCS) in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. We have developed a screening method for antibacterial agents that inhibit YycG, the essential histidine kinase (HK). To increase screening sensitivity, a temperature-sensitive yycF mutant (CNM2000) of B. subtilis with super-sensitivity to HK inhibitors was constructed, which was used for the screening of acetone extracts from 4000 microbes. A total of 11 samples showed higher sensitivity to CNM2000 than to wild-type parent 168, and seven of those were characterized to be potent inhibitors against autophosphorylation of YycG. One sample compound was purified and identified as aranorosinol B, a known antibacterial agent against Gram-positive bacteria including B. subtilis and S. aureus. Aranorosinol B inhibited YycG from both B. subtilis and S. aureus with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 223 and 211μM, respectively.
Pradimicin is an antifungal antibiotic which induces apoptosis like cell death in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pradimicin-resistant mutants were isolated from the S. cerevisiae and the mutation points were analyzed. A point mutation of YPD1 that led to a substitution of the 74th glycine (Gly74) to cysteine (Cys) was identified in a mutant strain NH1. In S. cerevisiae, Ypd1 transfers a phosphoryl group from the sensor kinase Sln1 to the response regulator Ssk1 which regulates a downstream MAP kinase in response to hyperosmotic stress. Gly74 is located in a three-residue reverse turn domain that connects two α-helices, one of which contains a histidine residue which is phosphorylated. In the reverse turn, glycine (relative position +10 to the active-site histidine) is highly conserved in Ypd1 and other histidine-containing phosphotransfer proteins. It was therefore suggested that the substitution of Gly74 to Cys altered the Ypd1 structure, which resulted in the resistance to pradimicin.