EI-2128-1, a. novel interleukin-1β converting enzyme (ICE) inhibitor, was isolated from the culture broths of Penicillium sp. E-2128. EI-2128-1 selectively inhibited human recombinant ICE activity with IC50 value of 0.59μM, without inhibiting elastase and cathepsin B. EI-2128-1 also inhibited mature interleukin-1β secretion from THP-1 cells induced by LPS with IC50 value of 0.28μM.
Our screening for antitumor antibiotics against transformed cells resulted in the isolation of a new active metabolite, oximidine III, from Pseudomonas sp. QN05727. This substance selectively inhibited the growth of rat 3Y1 fibroblasts transformed with various oncogenes. In ras- or src-transformed cells, oximidine III arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase and increased the expression of p21WAF1
The structure of oximidine III, a new antitumor antibiotic against transformed cells from Pseudomonas sp. QN05727, was determined to be a benzolactone enamide containing an O-methyloxime moiety as shown in Fig. 1 by NMR spectral analysis including a variety of two-dimensional techniques.
During the course of a screening program intended to identify new antiproliferative agents, a new bafilolide metabolite was discovered. R176502 (1) was isolated from the liquid fermentation cultures of a novel Micromonospora species found in African river bottom sediment. It was purified from ethyl acetate extracts using a series of countercurrent chromatographic steps. The structure was determined using 1- and 2-D NMR experiments. Three previously described bafilomycins (bafilomycins A1 (2), B1 (3), and B2 (4)) were also isolated (from other microbial strains). R176502 exhibited potency for inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in the nM range of concentrations.
In addition to malbranicin (1) and dihydromalbranicin (5), new substituted quinones 2, 3, 6 and hydroquinone 4 were isolated from the culture brothes of two strains of Malbranchea cinnamomea. The chemical constitutions of new metabolites 2, 3, 4 and 6 were elucidated by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. 2 (7-methoxymalbranicin) at a concentration of 42μM inhibited by 67% Tax/CREB-mediated expression of β-galactosidase in a recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Acremonidins A-E (1-5) were produced by fermentation of Acremonium sp., LL-Cyan 416, in heterogeneous phases. The structures of these compounds, containing a bridging keto group, were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Acremonidins A and B showed moderate activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including the methicillin-resistant staphylococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Selective acylations of acremonidin B afforded ester derivatives 6-9 that exhibited improved antibacterial activity.
From the ethyl acetate extract of a terrestrial Streptomycete isolate, five new quinone antibiotics, bhimamycin A (2a), B (2b), C (3c), D (5a), E (7) and the new tetralone bhimanone (8) were isolated together with the known microbial products chrysophanol (1a), aloesaponarin II (1b), 3, 8-dihydroxy-1-methylanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (1c), adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, phenylacetamide, and 2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol. The structures of these natural products were deduced from the spectral data and confirmed by comparison with related compounds from the literature and by synthesis.
In our screening of marine Streptomycetes for bioactive compounds, in addition to the known metabolites rabelomycin (1), fridamycin D (2b), N-benzylacetamide and N-(2'-phenylethyl) acetamide, two new anthracycline antibiotics designated as himalomycin A (2c) and B (2d) were isolated from the culture broth of the marine Streptomyces sp. isolate B6921. The structure of the new antibiotics was determined by comparison of the NMR data with those of fridamycin D (2b) and by detailed interpretation of mass, 1D and 2D NMR spectra.
A novel shuttle integration cosmid vector (pTOYAMAcos), based on pKU402, and shuttle integration vectors (pTYM18 and pTYM19) were constructed for the cloning of actinomycete DNA and its heterologous expression. These vectors contain oriT of an IncP transmissible plasmid in order to transfer genes by conjugation from Escherichia coli to actinomycetes, and they also contain int derived from actinophage φC31 in order to integrate site-specifically into the chromosomal DNA. pTOYAMAcos contains the λcos site to promote packaging of vectors containing 35-45-kb DNA fragments into λ particles. pTYM18 and pTYM19 contain kanamaycin and thiostrepton resistance genes, respectively, and have multiple cloning sites including EcoRI and HindIII sites, which are available for blue/white screening in E. coli. To demonstrate the utility of these vectors, we expressed the entire gene cluster for rebeccamycin biosynthesis from Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes using pTOYAMAcos and detected rebeccamycin production in transformed S. lividans. In addition, we demonstrated the utility of pTYM19 in a gene-disruption complementation test. L. aerocolonigenes ΔrebC strain, which is defective in rebeccamycin production because of a rebC deletion, was restored to rebeccamycin production by complemention by rebC cloned in pTYM19.
Most Streptomyces strains are equipped with only the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate. In addition to this pathway, some Streptomyces strains have the mevalonate pathway to produce terpenoid antibiotics. We have previously shown that a gene cluster for biosynthesis of terpentecin, a diterpene antibiotic, was located in adjacent the mevalonate pathway gene cluster. In this study, a mevalonate pathway gene cluster was cloned from Actinoplanes sp. strain A40644, an isoprenoid antibiotic BE-40644 producer, to examine whether the mevalonate pathway genes and isoprenoid biosynthetic genes are clustered in genomic DNA. By sequencing flanking regions a probable BE-40644 biosynthetic gene cluster was found in the downstream region of the mevalonate pathway gene cluster. Heterologous expression of a 9-kb fragment confirmed that a set of the BE-40644 biosynthetic genes was involved in the fragment. This result suggested that the presence of the mevalonate pathway might be a good landmark to detect the production of isoprenoid compounds by actinomycetes.