So far studied anthelmintics may be classified for convenience into two groups, e. g., drugs applied against the adult worms and those against the ova of ascaris. The anthelmintics for the treatment of ascariasis, chiefly applied against the adult worms are the chemicals, such as santonin, kainic acid, chenopodium oil1), hexylresorcin2,3), piperazin4), 1 brom-β-naphthol5), etc., and enzym substancir-i such as Nematolyt6), Ficin7,8). On the other hand, the drugs used to kill the ova are mustard-oil13,14) and D. D. (C3H6Cl2+C3H4Cl2)14,15,16), etc.
In the course of the screening program for anthelmintics from streptomycetes the ova of hog ascaris were employed as a test-organism and the culture filtrate of a streptomycete was found to inhibit the development of the ova and to kill the adult worms. Using this culture-filtrate the fundamental studies for the screening of anthelmintics were carried out and a new ascaricidal substance, named Ascaricidin17) has been isolated. This paper deals with the fundamental studies about screening procedures of ascaricidal substances and the comparative studies of ascaricidin and the other known anthelmintics upon the adult worms and the ova of hog ascaris in vitro.
Mice or rats, inoculated with either ascites or solid tumors have been generally used as tools of experiments for screening of anti-cancer substance. The effect was evaluated on the basis of the growth inhibitory activity against animal tumors and the survived period of host animals. In this paper, embryonated eggs were used as another tool for screening of anti-cancer substance. The cells of Ehrlich carcinoma or Yoshida sarcoma in ascitic form were implanted on the chorioallantoic membrane of the embryonated eggs. After additional incubation for a fewdays, the test solutions were dropped on the choriallantoic membrane or injected into yolk sac. Following incubation for another few days, the eggs were examined. The tumor growth on the chorioallantoic membrane was examined macroscopically and microscopically to evaluate the activity of test samples. The present report deals with the result of the experiments by this method, along with the influence of the anti-tumor substances on the growth of chick-embryo.
Sensitivity tests of microorganisms with leucomycin have already been subjects of several experiments. The results were reported at first by Katsu1) in 1954, and then by Ishii2), Sagae3), Ueda4), Mikata5), Nagai6), Uchimura7), Fujii8),23), Numao11) and Mikuni30). They showed that 90 to 100% of the isolated strains exhibited a high sensitivity to leucomycin, and only a small percent was resistant. Since these expriments were limited to strains of micrococci and some of corynebacteria and streptococci, it is necessary to experiment with strains of other bacteria.
From January 1957 to October 1957, 416 strains were isolated from patients. They consisted of strains of micrococci, pneumococci, streptococci, neisseria, and hemophilus. The sensitivities of these strains were tested with leucomycin. Tests were also run simultaneously with penicillin for comparative study.
In the preceding communications of this series1,2,3), it was reported that the high level demand of oxygen was perceived in the young cells (24-hour cultured cells) of Streptomyces griseus grown on soybean and casein media. But the metabolic pathway of the young cells has not been cleared as yet. Cochran4), Hockenhull5), Gilmour6), and Youmas7) demonstrated with Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces griseus, and tubercule bacteria that these microorgamisms oxidized various intermediates of the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle. Evidence for and against the active participation of various terminal pathways in microbial metabolism has been reviewed by Ajl8).
The purpose of the present study is to clarify the rôle of these terminal pathways in the metabolism of the young cells of S. griseus, with special reference to the Krebs cycle.
In the preceding communication1), it was demonstrated that various intermediates relating to the Krebs cycle were metabolized by the starved cell suspension of S. griseus grown on the casein medium. In the present paper, the result of the paper chromatographical observation of organic and amino acids which arose as intermediates of the fermentation by S. griseus will be reported.