Phylogenetic relationships in Athyrium and Cornopteris were deduced from two chloroplast DNA fragments, rbcL and trnL 5'exon-trnF, of 32 species, 2 varieties, 3 putative hybrids of Athyrium, three taxa of Cornopteris, and five outgroups. Athyrium is paraphyletic, and the Athyrium-Cornopteris complex comprises five clades. Clade I, the most basal, comprises A. niponicum, A. (=Anisocampium) sheareri, and A. (=Kuniwatsukia) cuspidatum. Clade II includes A. distentifolium and Cornopteris. All species of clades III and IV are diploids, while most species of Glade V are polyploids. The parentage of the putative hybrids and of species of hybrid origin were also suggested. The results were compared to previous major classifications based on morphology.
A new species of Oxygyne (Thismiaceae), O. yamashitae, a saprophytic/mycoheterotrophic species from Yaku Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is described and illustrated. The combination of characters such as three stamens attached to the perianth and the presence of lamellae at the mouth of the perianth tube indicate that it belongs to the genus Oxygyne. It is clearly distinct from other known species of Oxygyne in having an elliptic hole in the corona, in which stamens are inflexed, and in having three dichotomous appendages below the stigma. The discovery of O. yamashitae demonstrates that the lowland evergreen forest in Yaku Island is a hotspot of endemic plants and worthy to be conserved.
Species diversity of the genus Piper from Thailand was explored based on the herbarium specimens kept at the BK and compared with the specimens deposited in the BCMU, BK, BKF, NY, PE and SING. Taxonomic keys available in the flora of neighboring countries together with other taxonomic literatures were used for botanical identification. From the investigation, forty species of this genus were identified. Of these, two new species are described: P. maculaphyllum and P. rubroglandulosum. Four species: P. betloides, P. dominantinervium, P. pilobracteatum and P. phuwuaense, in addition with two varieties: P. pedicellatum var. eglandulatum and P. thomsonii var. trichostigma recently reported are included. The other thirty two species recognized are P. argyritis, P. betle, .P boehmeriifolium, P. caninum, P. colubrinum, P. hongkongense, P. khasianum, P. laetispicum, P. lolot, P. longum, P. magnibaccum, P. montium, P. mullesua, P. muricatum, P. mutabile, P. nigrum, P. pedicellatum, P. pendulispicum, P. politifolium, P. polysyphonum, P. retrofractum, P. ribesioides, P. sarmentosum, P. semiimmersum, P. submultinerve, P. sylvaticum, P. sylvestre, P. thomsonii var. thomsonii, P. tricolor, P. wallichii, P. wangii, P. yinkiangense; along with two unknown species: Piper sp. 1 and Piper sp. 2 which may represent new taxa, will be further studied.
Polyploidization is an important evolutionary force in plant speciation, and elucidating the origin and evolutionary history of a particular polyploid is important for understanding the evolution and distribution of plants. We investigated the origin of the endangered tetraploid Adonis ramosa Franch., which is endemic to Japan. To clarify the origin and phylogenetic relationships among A. ramosa and diploid species, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the species of Adonis in Japan and Korea using chloroplast trnL-trnF spacer and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. The sequences of the ITS region of showed that the sequences of A. ramosa were completely consistent with or quite similar to those of A. amurensis Regel & Radde of Hokkaido, Japan, and clearly differed from those of A. amurensis in Korea and three diploid species from Japan and Korea. The results suggest the possibility that A. ramosa is an autotetraploid, and the diploid progenitor is A. amurensis from Hokkaido. The distribution pattern of the ITS haplotype of A. ramosa also indicates range expansion of A. ramosa from northern to southern Japan Ecological divergence and adaptation to new habitats after polyploidization are likely to increase the survival of A. ramosa and enable it to widely colonize in new environments in Japan.
Chromosome numbers are reported for 23 strains from 19 populations attributed to 12 species of Japanese Arisaema. The chromosome numbers of A. galeiforme (2n=28) and A. kuratae (2n=28) are reported for the first time. The remaining counts support previously reported determinations (most of which were single counts) and thus add to the knowledge of chromosome number distribution within the species of Arisaema. Some taxonomic problems are briefly discussed.
Eria carinata Gibson ex Lindl. (Orchidaceae), thus far recorded from Sikkim-Himalaya to Thailand and Vietnam, is newly recorded for peninsular Malaysia. This new find marks the southernmost limit of distribution for the species.
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