Morinda umbellata subsp. boninensis (Rubiaceae), a perennial climber endemic to the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, was examined in the field to determine its sex expression and reproductive nature. Natural populations comprised hermaphroditic and staminate individuals. Hermaphroditic flowers had four or five stamens and a style with two stigmatic lobes; staminate flowers had four or five stamens and lacked a style and stigmatic lobes. There was no significant difference in stainability of the pollen with aniline blue in the anthers of either type of flower. Both morphs successfully resulted in seed set in artificial cross pollination experiments. Observations of living plants and bagging and crossing experiments revealed that M. umbellata subsp. boninensis is functionally androdioecious. The stigmas of hermaphroditic flowers protrude beyond the corolla tube and are positioned above the anthers, whereas anthers of the staminate flowers protrude beyond the corolla tube. This indicates that stigma and anther heights appear to be reciprocal between hermaphroditic and staminate flowers. Pollen differs significantly in size between the two sexual morphs. Based on these floral features, we consider the sexual system in subsp. boninesis may be derived from distylous hermaphroditism.
A new species, Pandanus daitoensis Susanti & J. Miyam. (Pandanaceae) is described from Kita-Daito Island near the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, in the North Pacific Ocean. Pandanus daitoensis is closest to P. duriocarpus Martelli (subg. Pandanus), but can be distinguished by its two rows of flexed acute carpels resulting in a surface of curved phalanges. Each carpel has dark brown longitudinal grooves extending from the stigma to the carpel base.
Allium virgunculae F. Mack. & Kitam. was revised and divided into two distinct species, A. virgunculae and A. kiiense (Murata) Hir. Takah. & M. Hotta (stat. nov.). Allium virgunculae was further subdivided into three varieties, var. virgunculae, var. yakushimense M. Hotta and var. koshikiense M. Hotta & Hir. Takah. (var. nov.).
Symphyodon leiocarpus, sp. nov., previously reported under the name Symphyodon oblongifolius, is described from Thailand and Myanmar. The longer axillary hairs, upright capsules with smooth exothecial cells, superficial stomata, and larger spore size suggest its remote relationship to other members of the genus. Based on a molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences of chloroplast rbcL gene, a new subgenus, Symphyodon subg. Macrothamniopsis, is established to accommodate the species. Morphological comparisons with related genera, especially those of the Hylocomiaceae and Symphyodontaceae, are also discussed briefly.
A total of 610 taxa of bryophytes (48 families, 154 genera, 364 species, and 3 varieties in mosses, 21 families, 59 genera, 226 species, 7 varieties and 1 forma in liverworts, and 1 family, 4 genera, and 9 species in hornworts) are reported from Ambon and Seram Islands based on collections made on the 1984-1986 Japan-Indonesian collaborative expeditions.
The authorship of the generic name Gigantopteris remains notoriously confusing, although the gigantopterids have been extensively reported from the Late Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic of Asia and North America. Here, it is elucidated that Hisakatsu Yabe was the first to validly publish the name Gigantopteris, originally proposed by August Schenk. The author of the genus name should therefore be cited as Gigantopteris Yabe, or Gigantopteris Schenk ex Yabe. Previous author citations ascribed to Gigantopteris are incorrect.