Using plastid trnK, trnL and trnL-F sequences and nuclear ITS sequences (4558 bp in total) from 32 individuals of 13 species, we conducted a combined analysis to clarify phylogenetic relationships of the species of Tofieldia and Triantha and to discover new taxonomic characters. According to strict consensus of 45 most parsimonious trees, the two genera are monophyletic with 100% bootstrap support. In Tofieldia, three robust clades (100%) are formed: (1) To. coccinea, To. nuda, To. divergens, To. yunnanensis and To. thibetica, (2) To. calyculata, and (3) To. okuboi, To. glahra and To. pusilla. The species of the clade 3 are primarily characterized by a broad and sharply bent leaf apex as in some species of Triantha. In clade 1, the Chinese species of To. divergens, To. yunnanensis and To. thibetica are grouped (100%). They share long needle-like or hair-like processes on the leaf margin. In Triantha, two clades are formed: (1) Tr. japonica, Tr. occidentalis and Tr. glutinosa from the USA (76%), and (2) Tr. racemosa and Tr. glutinosa from Canada (91%). This might suggest that Tr. glutinosa is the assemblage retaining ancestral character states of Triantha and should be divided at least into two species in the future treatments.
ITS sequence and chromosome data were used as evidence of natural hybridization in plants of Schoenoplectus (Cyperaceae) from Yawata moor, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The hybrids were intermediate morphologically between both S. hotarui and S. gemmifer, and S. hotarui and S. triangulatus, and resembled S. ×trapezoideus. Chromosome numbers were observed to be 2n=76 for S. gemmifer, 2n=44 for S. hotarui, 2n=42 for S. triangulatus, and 2n=60 for the putative hybrid. The ITS sequence data showed that the hybrid had sequences from both S. gemmifer (2n=76) and S. hotarui (2n=44). Our cytological and ITS sequence results suggested that the putative hybrid with 2n=60 arose by natural hybridization between S. gemmifer (2n=76) and S. hotarui (2n=44).
The name Carex sikokiana Franch. & Sav. has long been applied to a taxon known in Japan as 'Beni-ito-suge', a species with reddish leaf sheaths and closely related to C. alterniflora Franch. Examination of the type specimen, however, revealed that C. sikokiana has been misapplied and is synonymous with C. multifolia Ohwi var. stolonifera Ohwi (Japanese name 'Tsuru-miyama-kan-suge'). We also concluded that C. multifolia var. stolonifera should be treated at specific rank, distinct from C. multifolia. The correct name for it should therefore be C. sikokiana. Since 'Beni-ito-suge' has no available scientific name, a new varietal name C. alterniflora var. rubrovaginata J. Oda & Nagam. is proposed. Lectotypes of C. alterniflora var. fulva Ohwi and C. pseudostrigosa H. Lev. & Vaniot are selected.
A new species of Pieris (Ericaceae), P. amamioshimensis Setoguchi & Y. Maeda, from Amamioshima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, is described and illustrated. Pieris amamioshimensis is similar to P. koidzumiana from Okinawa Island, but differs in having lanceolate-oblanceolate leaves and larger corollas.
As part of The Flora of Peninsular Malaysia project, work is now underway to produce a checklist of the Araceae for Peninsular Malaysia as a first step to the final account. The species described here as new came to light recently as not fitting any known described Malaysian Homalomena species. The species is illustrated.
A new species, Doritis natmataungensis T. Yukawa, Nb. Tanaka & J. Murata (Orchidaceae) is described from Myanmar. It is easily distinguished from the closely related Doritis stobartiana (Rchb. f.) T. Yukawa & K. Kita by the following combination of characters: 1) mottled sepals and petals; 2) differently shaped ridge of lateral lobes of labellum; 3) broadly obovate midlobe of labellum; and 4) thick, exserted ridge of midlobe of labellum.
A new species, Dendrobium koyamae Nb. Tanaka, T. Yukawa & J. Murata (Orchidaceae; sect. Formosa), from Myanmar is described and illustrated. It is distinguishable from the closely related D. scabrilingue Lindl., by the larger flowers, obovate petals, rounded, orangish yellow with darker nerves (greenish with darker nerves in D. scabrilingue) lateral lobes of the labellum, and prominently crenulate margins of the midlobe of the labellum.
Piper rubroglandulosum Chaveer. & Mokkamul was recently published from Thailand, but pistillate plants were unknown. In this paper the pistillate spike, pistillate flowers and fruit are described and illustrated based on pistillate plants found in the Khao Phra Thaeo Wildlife Conservation Development and Extension Center, Phuket Province, southern Thailand, in 2009.